Septal nuclei are telencephalic structures associated with a variety of brain functions as part of the limbic system. The two posterior septal nuclei, the triangular septal nucleus (TS) and the bed nuclei of the anterior commissure (BAC), are involved in fear and anxiety through their projections to the medial habenular nucleus. However, the development of both the TS and BAC remains unclear. Here, we found a novel caudal origin and putative migratory stream of mouse posterior septal neurons arising from the thalamic eminence (TE), a transient developmental structure at the rostral end of the rodent diencephalon. TE-derived cells, which have glutamatergic identity, migrated rostrally and entered the telencephalic territory by passing beneath the third ventricle. Subsequently, they turned dorsally toward the posterior septum. We also observed that TS and BAC neurons in the postnatal septum were labeled with GFP by in utero electroporation into the TE, suggesting a shared origin. Furthermore, TE-derived septal neurons migrated along the fornix, an efferent pathway from the hippocampus. These results demonstrate that posterior septal neurons have a distinct extratelencephalic origin from other septal nuclei. This heterogeneous origin may contribute to neuronal diversity of the septal nuclear complex.
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