Differences in underwater and land-based leg muscle activity

Koichi Kaneda, Fuminori Kimura, Takayuki Akimoto, Ichiro Kono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity. Nine healthy males (mean age : 21.7±0.5 years, mean height : 173.4 ±2.2 cm) had electrodes placed on their left leg muscles (Tibialis Anterior ; TA, Medial Gastrocnemius ; MG, Soleus ; SOL, Rectus Femoris ; RF, and Biceps Femoris ; BF), and their muscle activity was measured during various exercises. The subjects performed six types of exercise such as the forward walk, backward walk, squat, calf raise, leg range, and one leg wave, both in the water (waist level) and on land. These exercises were categorized as 3 types of leg movement according to direction ; horizontal, vertical, and mixed movement. In the forward walk and backward walk, categorized as horizontal movements, the integrated electromyogram (IEMG) significantly increased during underwater exercise compared with on land. In the squat, as a vertical movement, the IEMG showed a similar change under both conditions. In the calf raise, as a vertical movement, and leg range and one leg wave, as mixed movements, the IEMG significantly decreased during underwater exercise compared with on land. These results suggest that leg muscle activity during underwater exercise is different based on the movement direction of the legs. In a word, it was apparent that movement in a horizontal direction underwater provides greater activity for leg muscles than on land; but movement in a vertical and/or mixed direction underwater provides less activity for leg muscles than on land. In prescribing an exercise program, it may be helpful to understand the differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-147
Number of pages7
Journaljapanese journal of physical fitness and sports medicine
Volume53
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Feb

    Fingerprint

Keywords

  • IEMG
  • Leg muscles
  • Movement direction
  • Water exercise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this