Differences in underwater and land-based leg muscle activity

Koichi Kaneda, Fuminori Kimura, Takayuki Akimoto, Ichiro Kono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity. Nine healthy males (mean age : 21.7±0.5 years, mean height : 173.4 ±2.2 cm) had electrodes placed on their left leg muscles (Tibialis Anterior ; TA, Medial Gastrocnemius ; MG, Soleus ; SOL, Rectus Femoris ; RF, and Biceps Femoris ; BF), and their muscle activity was measured during various exercises. The subjects performed six types of exercise such as the forward walk, backward walk, squat, calf raise, leg range, and one leg wave, both in the water (waist level) and on land. These exercises were categorized as 3 types of leg movement according to direction ; horizontal, vertical, and mixed movement. In the forward walk and backward walk, categorized as horizontal movements, the integrated electromyogram (IEMG) significantly increased during underwater exercise compared with on land. In the squat, as a vertical movement, the IEMG showed a similar change under both conditions. In the calf raise, as a vertical movement, and leg range and one leg wave, as mixed movements, the IEMG significantly decreased during underwater exercise compared with on land. These results suggest that leg muscle activity during underwater exercise is different based on the movement direction of the legs. In a word, it was apparent that movement in a horizontal direction underwater provides greater activity for leg muscles than on land; but movement in a vertical and/or mixed direction underwater provides less activity for leg muscles than on land. In prescribing an exercise program, it may be helpful to understand the differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-147
Number of pages7
JournalJapanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
Volume53
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Feb
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Leg
Muscles
Electromyography
Quadriceps Muscle
Electrodes
Direction compound
Water

Keywords

  • IEMG
  • Leg muscles
  • Movement direction
  • Water exercise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physiology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Differences in underwater and land-based leg muscle activity. / Kaneda, Koichi; Kimura, Fuminori; Akimoto, Takayuki; Kono, Ichiro.

In: Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, Vol. 53, No. 1, 02.2004, p. 141-147.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kaneda, Koichi ; Kimura, Fuminori ; Akimoto, Takayuki ; Kono, Ichiro. / Differences in underwater and land-based leg muscle activity. In: Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine. 2004 ; Vol. 53, No. 1. pp. 141-147.
@article{80138a02eb2e45bd85640ab83759bb95,
title = "Differences in underwater and land-based leg muscle activity",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity. Nine healthy males (mean age : 21.7±0.5 years, mean height : 173.4 ±2.2 cm) had electrodes placed on their left leg muscles (Tibialis Anterior ; TA, Medial Gastrocnemius ; MG, Soleus ; SOL, Rectus Femoris ; RF, and Biceps Femoris ; BF), and their muscle activity was measured during various exercises. The subjects performed six types of exercise such as the forward walk, backward walk, squat, calf raise, leg range, and one leg wave, both in the water (waist level) and on land. These exercises were categorized as 3 types of leg movement according to direction ; horizontal, vertical, and mixed movement. In the forward walk and backward walk, categorized as horizontal movements, the integrated electromyogram (IEMG) significantly increased during underwater exercise compared with on land. In the squat, as a vertical movement, the IEMG showed a similar change under both conditions. In the calf raise, as a vertical movement, and leg range and one leg wave, as mixed movements, the IEMG significantly decreased during underwater exercise compared with on land. These results suggest that leg muscle activity during underwater exercise is different based on the movement direction of the legs. In a word, it was apparent that movement in a horizontal direction underwater provides greater activity for leg muscles than on land; but movement in a vertical and/or mixed direction underwater provides less activity for leg muscles than on land. In prescribing an exercise program, it may be helpful to understand the differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity.",
keywords = "IEMG, Leg muscles, Movement direction, Water exercise",
author = "Koichi Kaneda and Fuminori Kimura and Takayuki Akimoto and Ichiro Kono",
year = "2004",
month = "2",
language = "English",
volume = "53",
pages = "141--147",
journal = "Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine",
issn = "0039-906X",
publisher = "Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Differences in underwater and land-based leg muscle activity

AU - Kaneda, Koichi

AU - Kimura, Fuminori

AU - Akimoto, Takayuki

AU - Kono, Ichiro

PY - 2004/2

Y1 - 2004/2

N2 - The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity. Nine healthy males (mean age : 21.7±0.5 years, mean height : 173.4 ±2.2 cm) had electrodes placed on their left leg muscles (Tibialis Anterior ; TA, Medial Gastrocnemius ; MG, Soleus ; SOL, Rectus Femoris ; RF, and Biceps Femoris ; BF), and their muscle activity was measured during various exercises. The subjects performed six types of exercise such as the forward walk, backward walk, squat, calf raise, leg range, and one leg wave, both in the water (waist level) and on land. These exercises were categorized as 3 types of leg movement according to direction ; horizontal, vertical, and mixed movement. In the forward walk and backward walk, categorized as horizontal movements, the integrated electromyogram (IEMG) significantly increased during underwater exercise compared with on land. In the squat, as a vertical movement, the IEMG showed a similar change under both conditions. In the calf raise, as a vertical movement, and leg range and one leg wave, as mixed movements, the IEMG significantly decreased during underwater exercise compared with on land. These results suggest that leg muscle activity during underwater exercise is different based on the movement direction of the legs. In a word, it was apparent that movement in a horizontal direction underwater provides greater activity for leg muscles than on land; but movement in a vertical and/or mixed direction underwater provides less activity for leg muscles than on land. In prescribing an exercise program, it may be helpful to understand the differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity.

AB - The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity. Nine healthy males (mean age : 21.7±0.5 years, mean height : 173.4 ±2.2 cm) had electrodes placed on their left leg muscles (Tibialis Anterior ; TA, Medial Gastrocnemius ; MG, Soleus ; SOL, Rectus Femoris ; RF, and Biceps Femoris ; BF), and their muscle activity was measured during various exercises. The subjects performed six types of exercise such as the forward walk, backward walk, squat, calf raise, leg range, and one leg wave, both in the water (waist level) and on land. These exercises were categorized as 3 types of leg movement according to direction ; horizontal, vertical, and mixed movement. In the forward walk and backward walk, categorized as horizontal movements, the integrated electromyogram (IEMG) significantly increased during underwater exercise compared with on land. In the squat, as a vertical movement, the IEMG showed a similar change under both conditions. In the calf raise, as a vertical movement, and leg range and one leg wave, as mixed movements, the IEMG significantly decreased during underwater exercise compared with on land. These results suggest that leg muscle activity during underwater exercise is different based on the movement direction of the legs. In a word, it was apparent that movement in a horizontal direction underwater provides greater activity for leg muscles than on land; but movement in a vertical and/or mixed direction underwater provides less activity for leg muscles than on land. In prescribing an exercise program, it may be helpful to understand the differences between underwater and land-based exercise in leg muscle activity.

KW - IEMG

KW - Leg muscles

KW - Movement direction

KW - Water exercise

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1842684448&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=1842684448&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 53

SP - 141

EP - 147

JO - Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine

JF - Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine

SN - 0039-906X

IS - 1

ER -