Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that was discovered in birds as an inhibitory factor for gonadotrophin release. RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) is a mammalian GnIH orthologue that inhibits gonadotrophin synthesis and release in mammals through actions on gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones and gonadotrophs, mediated via the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R), GPR147. On the other hand, hypothalamic kisspeptin provokes the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus. The present study aimed to compare the expression of RFRP in the dorsomedial hypothalamus and paraventricular nucleus (DMH/PVN) and that of kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the female goat hypothalamus during anoestrous and breeding seasons. Mature female Abadeh does were used during anoestrus, as well as the follicular and luteal phases of the cycle. The number of RFRP-immunoreactive (-IR) neurones in the follicular phase was lower than in the luteal and anoestrous stages. Irrespective of the ovarian stage, the number of RFRP-IR neurones in the rostral and middle regions of the DMH/PVN was higher than in the caudal region. By contrast, the number of kisspeptin-IR neurones in the follicular stage was greater than in the luteal stage and during the anoestrous stage. Irrespective of the stage of the ovarian cycle, the number of kisspeptin-IR neurones in the caudal region of the ARC was greater than in the middle and rostral regions. In conclusion, RFRP-IR cells were more abundant in the rostral region of the DMH/PVN nuclei of the hypothalamus, with a greater number being found during the luteal and anoestrous stages compared to the follicular stage. On the other hand, kisspeptin-IR neurones were more abundant in the caudal part of the ARC, with a greater number recorded in the follicular stage compared to the luteal and anoestrous stages.
- Breeding season
- RFamide-related peptide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience