Direct observation of the polar state in the relaxor Ba(Ti 1-xZrx)O3 by transmission electron microscopy

H. Tsukasaki, Y. Inoue, Yasumasa Koyama

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In the ferroelectric mixed-oxide system Ba(Ti1-xZr x)O3 (BTZ), an increase in Zr content results in the crossover from the ferroelectric MA-type state with monoclinic symmetry to the relaxor state around x = 0.28. As a result of the crossover, BTZ is identified as the relaxor for x > 0.28. To understand the nature of the relaxor in BTZ, direct observations of the paraelectric (PE), MA, and relaxor states for 0.17 ≤ x ≤ 0.40 was carried out between 400 K and 87 K by transmission electron microscopy with the help of the failure of Friedel's law. The observations indicated that polar nanometer-sized regions with <110>PE and <001>PE components were separately observed in the PE state above both Tc and Tm, which are, respectively, a transition temperature of the direct (PE→MA) transition and a maximum temperature of the real dielectric permittivity for the relaxor. During cooling from the paraelectric state above Tm in the relaxor, in the relaxor state below it, <001>PC-component regions locally formed a 180° domain structure, together with no coalescence of <110>PC regions. It is thus understood that the M A-to-relaxor crossover is characterized by the complete suppression of the coalescence of polar nanometer-sized regions with <110> PE components. The relaxor state below Tm for 0.29 ≤ x ≤ 0.40 could be, as a result, identified as an assembly of polar nanometer-sized domains, presumably with monoclinic symmetry.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)18-33
    Number of pages16
    JournalFerroelectrics
    Volume460
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014 Feb 17

    Fingerprint

    Coalescence
    Ferroelectric materials
    crossovers
    Transmission electron microscopy
    coalescing
    transmission electron microscopy
    Oxides
    Superconducting transition temperature
    Permittivity
    symmetry
    mixed oxides
    Cooling
    assembly
    transition temperature
    retarding
    permittivity
    cooling
    Temperature
    temperature

    Keywords

    • Ba(TiZr)O
    • domain structure
    • polar nanometer-sized region
    • relaxor ferroelectrics
    • transmission electron microscopy

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
    • Condensed Matter Physics

    Cite this

    Direct observation of the polar state in the relaxor Ba(Ti 1-xZrx)O3 by transmission electron microscopy. / Tsukasaki, H.; Inoue, Y.; Koyama, Yasumasa.

    In: Ferroelectrics, Vol. 460, No. 1, 17.02.2014, p. 18-33.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AB - In the ferroelectric mixed-oxide system Ba(Ti1-xZr x)O3 (BTZ), an increase in Zr content results in the crossover from the ferroelectric MA-type state with monoclinic symmetry to the relaxor state around x = 0.28. As a result of the crossover, BTZ is identified as the relaxor for x > 0.28. To understand the nature of the relaxor in BTZ, direct observations of the paraelectric (PE), MA, and relaxor states for 0.17 ≤ x ≤ 0.40 was carried out between 400 K and 87 K by transmission electron microscopy with the help of the failure of Friedel's law. The observations indicated that polar nanometer-sized regions with <110>PE and <001>PE components were separately observed in the PE state above both Tc and Tm, which are, respectively, a transition temperature of the direct (PE→MA) transition and a maximum temperature of the real dielectric permittivity for the relaxor. During cooling from the paraelectric state above Tm in the relaxor, in the relaxor state below it, <001>PC-component regions locally formed a 180° domain structure, together with no coalescence of <110>PC regions. It is thus understood that the M A-to-relaxor crossover is characterized by the complete suppression of the coalescence of polar nanometer-sized regions with <110> PE components. The relaxor state below Tm for 0.29 ≤ x ≤ 0.40 could be, as a result, identified as an assembly of polar nanometer-sized domains, presumably with monoclinic symmetry.

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