Discovery and evolutionary history of gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone and kisspeptin: New key neuropeptides controlling reproduction

Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, G. E. Bentley, L. J. Kriegsfeld, T. Osugi, J. Y. Seong, H. Vaudry

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    125 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the primary hypothalamic factor responsible for the control of gonadotrophin secretion in vertebrates. However, within the last decade, two other hypothalamic neuropeptides have been found to play key roles in the control of reproductive functions: gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and kisspeptin. In 2000, we discovered GnIH in the quail hypothalamus. GnIH inhibits gonadotrophin synthesis and release in birds through actions on GnRH neurones and gonadotrophs, mediated via GPR147. Subsequently, GnIH orthologues were identified in other vertebrate species from fish to humans. As in birds, mammalian and fish GnIH orthologues inhibit gonadotrophin release, indicating a conserved role for this neuropeptide in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis across species. Subsequent to the discovery of GnIH, kisspeptin, encoded by the KiSS-1 gene, was discovered in mammals. By contrast to GnIH, kisspeptin has a direct stimulatory effect on GnRH neurones via GPR54. GPR54 is also expressed in pituitary cells, but whether gonadotrophs are targets for kisspeptin remains unresolved. The KiSS-1 gene is also highly conserved and has been identified in mammals, amphibians and fish. We have recently found a second isoform of KiSS-1, designated KiSS-2, in several vertebrates, but not birds, rodents or primates. In this review, we highlight the discovery, mechanisms of action, and functional significance of these two chief regulators of the reproductive axis.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)716-727
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of Neuroendocrinology
    Volume22
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jul

    Fingerprint

    Kisspeptins
    Neuropeptides
    Gonadotropins
    Reproduction
    Hormones
    Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
    Birds
    Gonadotrophs
    Vertebrates
    Fishes
    Mammals
    Neurons
    Quail
    Amphibians
    Primates
    Genes
    Hypothalamus
    Rodentia
    Protein Isoforms

    Keywords

    • Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)
    • Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    • Gonadotrophins
    • Hypothalamus
    • Kisspeptin
    • Reproduction

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Endocrinology
    • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
    • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
    • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

    Cite this

    Discovery and evolutionary history of gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone and kisspeptin : New key neuropeptides controlling reproduction. / Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Bentley, G. E.; Kriegsfeld, L. J.; Osugi, T.; Seong, J. Y.; Vaudry, H.

    In: Journal of Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 22, No. 7, 07.2010, p. 716-727.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi ; Bentley, G. E. ; Kriegsfeld, L. J. ; Osugi, T. ; Seong, J. Y. ; Vaudry, H. / Discovery and evolutionary history of gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone and kisspeptin : New key neuropeptides controlling reproduction. In: Journal of Neuroendocrinology. 2010 ; Vol. 22, No. 7. pp. 716-727.
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