Distribution and developmental changes in GABA-like immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system of pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis

Dai Hatakeyama, Etsuro Ito

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We examined three-dimensionally the arrangement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-like immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, by a combination of immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy on whole-mount preparations. GABA-like immunoreactivity was detected in all ganglia of the adult CNS. The following distribution of immunoreactive cell bodies was noted in the adult snail. Buccal ganglia: one cell body and five pairs of cell bodies, cerebral ganglia: one pair of cell bodies, pedal ganglia: two single cell bodies, two pairs of cell bodies, and three pairs of cell clusters, and pleural ganglia: one pair of cell bodies. In the asymmetrical parietal ganglia, three cell bodies were located in the left parietal ganglion; three cell bodies and three cell clusters were located in the right parietal ganglion. In the single visceral ganglion, a few scattered individual cell bodies and a cell cluster were GABA-like immunoreactive. Our results showed that the occurrence of GABA is widely spread in the CNS of adult L. stagnalis. GABA-like immunoreactivity in the CNS was not detected in the embryo but was observed after hatching, although the number of stained cells was less than in the adult, with the exception of those in the cerebral ganglia where their number decreased with maturation. Our results provide detailed maps of the central GABA-like immunoreactive neurons in juveniles, immatures, and adults of L. stagnalis. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)310-322
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes



  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy
  • Gastropod
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neuronal mapping
  • Three- dimensional reconstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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