Doping-level dependent mobilities of positive polarons and bipolarons in poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT-C16) based on an ionic-liquid-gated transistor configuration

Ippei Enokida, Yukio Furukawa

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We studied the relationship between the electrical properties and type of carrier, polarons and/or bipolarons, in unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16 in an ionic-liquid-gated transistor (ILGT) configuration using Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The types of carriers generated in the ILGT were identified by Raman spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity and mobility were obtained as a function of the doping level or injected charge density from the electrochemical measurements. The electrical conductivity increased rapidly due to the formation of positive polarons. Bipolaron formation started at 7.3 and 3.4 mol%/π electrons for unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16, respectively. Bipolarons are the dominant carriers in high-conductivity regions for unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16. The highest bipolaron mobility in unannealed PBTTT-C16 was 0.92 cm 2 V −1 s −1 with 11 mol% doping (charge density, 1.3 × 10 21 cm −3 ), whereas the highest bipolaron mobility in annealed PBTTT-C16 was 1.2 cm 2 V −1 s −1 with 4.8 and 5.2 mol% doping (charge density, 5.7 and 6.2 × 10 20 cm −3 ).

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)28-34
    Number of pages7
    JournalOrganic Electronics: physics, materials, applications
    Volume68
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2019 May 1

    Fingerprint

    Ionic Liquids
    Thiophenes
    Polarons
    polarons
    Thiophene
    thiophenes
    Charge density
    Ionic liquids
    Transistors
    transistors
    Doping (additives)
    Raman spectroscopy
    liquids
    configurations
    electrical resistivity
    Electric properties
    electrical properties
    conductivity
    Electrons
    electrons

    Keywords

    • Bipolaron
    • Ionic liquid
    • Mobility
    • Organic transistor
    • Polaron
    • Raman spectroscopy

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
    • Biomaterials
    • Chemistry(all)
    • Condensed Matter Physics
    • Materials Chemistry
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    Cite this

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    title = "Doping-level dependent mobilities of positive polarons and bipolarons in poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT-C16) based on an ionic-liquid-gated transistor configuration",
    abstract = "We studied the relationship between the electrical properties and type of carrier, polarons and/or bipolarons, in unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16 in an ionic-liquid-gated transistor (ILGT) configuration using Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The types of carriers generated in the ILGT were identified by Raman spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity and mobility were obtained as a function of the doping level or injected charge density from the electrochemical measurements. The electrical conductivity increased rapidly due to the formation of positive polarons. Bipolaron formation started at 7.3 and 3.4 mol{\%}/π electrons for unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16, respectively. Bipolarons are the dominant carriers in high-conductivity regions for unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16. The highest bipolaron mobility in unannealed PBTTT-C16 was 0.92 cm 2 V −1 s −1 with 11 mol{\%} doping (charge density, 1.3 × 10 21 cm −3 ), whereas the highest bipolaron mobility in annealed PBTTT-C16 was 1.2 cm 2 V −1 s −1 with 4.8 and 5.2 mol{\%} doping (charge density, 5.7 and 6.2 × 10 20 cm −3 ).",
    keywords = "Bipolaron, Ionic liquid, Mobility, Organic transistor, Polaron, Raman spectroscopy",
    author = "Ippei Enokida and Yukio Furukawa",
    year = "2019",
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    language = "English",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Doping-level dependent mobilities of positive polarons and bipolarons in poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT-C16) based on an ionic-liquid-gated transistor configuration

    AU - Enokida, Ippei

    AU - Furukawa, Yukio

    PY - 2019/5/1

    Y1 - 2019/5/1

    N2 - We studied the relationship between the electrical properties and type of carrier, polarons and/or bipolarons, in unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16 in an ionic-liquid-gated transistor (ILGT) configuration using Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The types of carriers generated in the ILGT were identified by Raman spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity and mobility were obtained as a function of the doping level or injected charge density from the electrochemical measurements. The electrical conductivity increased rapidly due to the formation of positive polarons. Bipolaron formation started at 7.3 and 3.4 mol%/π electrons for unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16, respectively. Bipolarons are the dominant carriers in high-conductivity regions for unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16. The highest bipolaron mobility in unannealed PBTTT-C16 was 0.92 cm 2 V −1 s −1 with 11 mol% doping (charge density, 1.3 × 10 21 cm −3 ), whereas the highest bipolaron mobility in annealed PBTTT-C16 was 1.2 cm 2 V −1 s −1 with 4.8 and 5.2 mol% doping (charge density, 5.7 and 6.2 × 10 20 cm −3 ).

    AB - We studied the relationship between the electrical properties and type of carrier, polarons and/or bipolarons, in unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16 in an ionic-liquid-gated transistor (ILGT) configuration using Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The types of carriers generated in the ILGT were identified by Raman spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity and mobility were obtained as a function of the doping level or injected charge density from the electrochemical measurements. The electrical conductivity increased rapidly due to the formation of positive polarons. Bipolaron formation started at 7.3 and 3.4 mol%/π electrons for unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16, respectively. Bipolarons are the dominant carriers in high-conductivity regions for unannealed and annealed PBTTT-C16. The highest bipolaron mobility in unannealed PBTTT-C16 was 0.92 cm 2 V −1 s −1 with 11 mol% doping (charge density, 1.3 × 10 21 cm −3 ), whereas the highest bipolaron mobility in annealed PBTTT-C16 was 1.2 cm 2 V −1 s −1 with 4.8 and 5.2 mol% doping (charge density, 5.7 and 6.2 × 10 20 cm −3 ).

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