Earthquake-resistant design features of immersed tunnels in Japan

O. Kiyomiya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Citations (Scopus)


The main external force in the structural design of immersed tunnels in Japan is earthquake load, because of the vigorous earthquake activity in this region of the world. Many immersed tunnels have been constructed in soft ground at port areas, where the response of both the soft ground and the immersed tunnels are amplified during earthquakes. To estimate sectional force due to earthquake load, design methods have been developed by experimental testing, field observations and computer analysis. This paper outlines seismic design methods and countermeasures to earthquakes in Japan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)463-475
Number of pages13
JournalTunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Building and Construction
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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