Effect of antioxidant (α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) fortification on light-induced flavor of milk

M. Van Aardt, S. E. Duncan, J. E. Marcy, Timothy Edward Long, S. F. O'Keefe, S. R. Nielsen-Sims

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33 Citations (Scopus)


The effectiveness of added antioxidants against oxidation off-flavor development in light-exposed milk was evaluated using sensory and chemical analysis. Sensory testing for similarity showed no perceivable difference between control milk and milk with added (1) 0.05% α-tocopherol (TOC) and (2) 0.025% α-tocopherol and 0.025% ascorbic acid (TOC/ASC), but did demonstrate a perceivable difference when adding (3) 0.05% ascorbic acid (ASC) alone. Subsequently, sensory testing for difference showed a significant difference in oxidation off-flavor between light-exposed control milk and light-exposed milk with added TOC/ASC, whereas milk fortified with TOC was not different from control. Gas chromatography-olfactometry showed that more aroma-active flavor compounds were observed in light-exposed milk treated with TOC and TOC/ASC than light-exposed milk with no added antioxidants. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS) test verified chemically the extent of oxidation in control and antioxidant-treated milk samples. Milk that was exposed to light for 10 h showed a significantly higher TBARS value (0.92 ± 0.09 mg/kg) than milk that was protected from light (0.59 ± 0.184 mg/kg), or milk that was treated with TOC/ASC (0.26 ± 0.092 mg/kg). Direct addition of low levels of antioxidants (TOC/ASC) to milk protected its flavor over 10 h of light exposed storage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)872-880
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes



  • Antioxidant
  • Light-induced flavor
  • Lipid oxidation
  • Milk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Van Aardt, M., Duncan, S. E., Marcy, J. E., Long, T. E., O'Keefe, S. F., & Nielsen-Sims, S. R. (2005). Effect of antioxidant (α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) fortification on light-induced flavor of milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 88(3), 872-880. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72753-3