Effect of breakfast omission on subjective appetite, metabolism, acylated ghrelin and GLP-17-36 during rest and exercise

David J. Clayton, David J. Stensel, Lewis J. James*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Breakfast omission induces compensatory eating behaviour at lunch, but often reduces daily energy intake. This study investigated the effect of breakfast omission on within-day subjective appetite, energy expenditure, substrate utilisation, and appetite hormone profiles, in response to standardised feeding and exercise. Methods: Eight male, habitual breakfast eaters completed two randomised trials. Subjects arrived overnight fasted (0 h), and either consumed (BC) or omitted (BO) a standardized breakfast (mean standard deviation [SD]) (3085 [217] kJ). Lunch (4162 [510] kJ) and dinner (4914 [345] kJ) were provided at 4.5 and 10 h, respectively and subjects performed 60 min fixed-intensity cycling (50% VO2 peak) at 8 h. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4.5, 6, and 8 h, with expired air and subjective appetite sensations (hunger, fullness, desire to eat (DTE), and prospective food consumption [PFC]) collected throughout. Heart rate and perceived exertion were measured during exercise. Results: Hunger, DTE and PFC were greater and fullness lower during BO (P < 0.05) between breakfast and lunch, with no differences after lunch (P > 0.193). Resting energy expenditure was greater at 2.5 h during BC (P < 0.05) with no other differences between trials (P > 0.156). Active glucogon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17-36) was greater (P < 0.05) and acylated ghrelin tended to be greater (P = 0.078) at 4.5 h during BC. Heart rate was greater on BO (P < 0.05) during exercise. Conclusions: The results of this laboratory-controlled study suggest that the effects of breakfast omission are transient and do not extend beyond lunch, even when the negative energy balance created by breakfast omission is sustained via standardised feeding and exercise.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-185
Number of pages7
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Feb 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Breakfast skipping
  • Energy balance
  • Energy expenditure
  • Energy restriction
  • Meal omission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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