Effect of sand mold models on the simulated mold restraint force and the contraction of the casting during cooling in green sand molds

Yuki Inoue, Yuichi Motoyama, Hiroki Takahashi, Keita Shinji, Makoto Yoshida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, the JIS AD12.1 (almost the same as A383.1) aluminum alloy was cast in a green sand mold. The restraint force from the sand mold and the contraction of the casting were measured dynamically from the solidifying temperature to the shake-out temperature using a dedicated device. Then, FEM (Finite Element Method) thermal stress analyses of the experiment were performed. The analyses adopted four types of representative constitutive equations and the mechanical properties of the green sand mold, which were quoted from previous research articles. As verification, this study dynamically compared the simulated restraint force and the contraction of casting with measured results and examined which mechanical properties are important for expressing the restraint force of the sand mold. This verification is the first attempt in the world. As a result, the simulated restraint force was estimated to be over ten times as large as the measured result in each type of equation because the yield stress of the sand mold used in our experiment was lower than those quoted from previous studies. The yield stress measured by a uniaxial compression test was 1/20 of the quoted values. When the measured yield stress was adopted in the simulation, the simulated restraint force and contraction approached the measured results. The yield stress of the sand mold was a dominant factor in the restraint force simulated by the thermal stress analyses. The yield stress of the green sand mold used in the casting process should be measured to predict the residual stress using FEM thermal stress analyses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1157-1165
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Materials Processing Technology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan 1



  • Aluminum alloy
  • FEM
  • Residual stress
  • Sand casting
  • Sand mold
  • Thermal stress analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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