Effects of aerobic and resistance training combined with fortified milk on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in older adults: A randomized controlled trial

Yosuke Osuka, S. Fujita, N. Kitano, K. Kosaki, J. Seol, Y. Sawano, H. Shi, Y. Fujii, S. Maeda, T. Okura, H. Kobayashi, K. Tanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Fortified milk and resistance training (RT) increase muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in older adults, but it remains unclear whether RT combined with aerobic training (AT) would have stronger effects on these outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic and resistance training (ART) combined with fortified milk consumption on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in older adults. Design: Open-labeled randomized controlled trial. Setting: University of Tsukuba. Participants: Fifty-six older adults aged 65-79. Intervention: Participants were randomly allocated into resistance training (RT + fortified milk, n = 28) and aerobic and resistance training (ART + fortified milk, n = 28) groups. All participants attended supervised exercise programs twice a week at University of Tsukuba and ingested fortified milk every day for 12 weeks. Skeletal muscle index ([SMI]: appendicular lean mass/ height2) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as a muscle mass measure. One-repetition maximum strength was measured using four kinds of resistance training machines (chest press, leg extension, leg curl, and leg press) as muscle strength measures. Sit-to-stand and arm curl tests were also assessed as physical performance measures. Measurements: The primary measurements were muscle mass and strength. The secondary outcomes were physical performance, blood samples, habitual diet, habitual physical activity, and medication use. Results: Although the muscle strength and physical performance measures significantly improved in both groups, SMI significantly improved in only the RT group. There was no significant difference in the change in SMI and muscle strength measures between the two groups. However, the change in sit-to-stand and arm curl measures in the ART group were significantly higher than those in the RT group. Conclusions: These results suggest that AT before RT combined with fortified milk consumption has similar effects on skeletal muscle mass and strength compared with RT alone, but it may be a more useful strategy to improve physical performance in older adults. Although the mechanism of our intervention is uncertain, our program would be an effective prevention for sarcopenia in older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1349-1357
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nutrition, Health and Aging
Volume21
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Dec 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • aerobic training
  • fortified milk
  • older adults
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • resistance training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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