Effects of Form-Focused Instruction and Corrective Feedback on L2 Pronunciation Development of /r{turned}/ by Japanese Learners of English

Kazuya Saito, Roy Lyster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

112 Citations (Scopus)


Sixty-five Japanese learners of English participated in the current study, which investigated the acquisitional value of form-focused instruction (FFI) with and without corrective feedback (CF) on learners' pronunciation development. All students received a 4-hr FFI treatment designed to encourage them to notice and practice the target feature of English /r{turned}/ in meaningful discourse, except those in the control group (n= 11), who received comparable instruction but without FFI on English /r{turned}/. During FFI, the instructors provided CF only to students in the FFI + CF group (n= 29) by recasting their mispronunciation or unclear pronunciation of /r{turned}/, whereas no CF was provided to those in the FFI-only group (n= 25). Acoustic analyses were conducted on frequency values of the third formant (F3) of English /r{turned}/ tokens elicited via pretest and posttest measures targeting familiar items and a generalizability test targeting unfamiliar items. The results showed that: (a) F3 values of the FFI + CF group significantly declined after the intervention, not only at a controlled-speech level but also a spontaneous-speech level, regardless of following vowel contexts; (b) change in F3 values of the FFI-only group and the control group was not statistically significant; and (c) the generalizability of FFI to novel tokens remained unclear.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-633
Number of pages39
JournalLanguage Learning
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jun
Externally publishedYes



  • Corrective feedback
  • English /r{turned}/
  • English as a foreign language
  • Form-focused instruction
  • L2 phonology
  • Pronunciation instruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Linguistics and Language
  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics

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