Effects of the time-of-day (morning vs. afternoon) of implementing a combined physical and cognitive exercise program on cognitive functions and mood of older adults: A randomized controlled study

T. Takahashi, T. Haitani, Fumiko Tanaka, T. Yamagishi, Yasuo Kawakami, S. Shibata, Hiroaki Kumano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This study examined the effects of the time of conducting a combined physical and cognitive exercise program on cognitive functions and the mood of older adults. We randomly assigned 17 participants (8 men, 9 women, age 73,24±3,75) to the morning group (AM Group), 18 (8 men, 10 women, age 73,11±4,84) to the afternoon group (PM Group), and they completed a 12-week, dual-task exercise program in the morning or the afternoon, respectively. Moreover, the waiting-list control group consisted of 12 participants (6 men, 6 women, age 73,25±5,93). The cognitive functions and the mood of the participants were assessed before and after the program by using the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination, and the short version of the Profile of Mood States, respectively. As a result, the exercise program conducted in the afternoon had broader effects on cognitive functions (increased Repetition and Memory) than in the morning (increased Repetition), or the waiting-list control group (increased Judgment). Moreover, the program in the afternoon tended to reduce Anger-Hostility, and Fatigue. In conclusion, conducting the exercise program in the afternoon might be more effective for improving cognitive functions and the mood of older adults than in the morning. However, there was heterogeneity between the groups despite the randomization. Therefore, we suggest conducting a more rigorously controlled study using a larger sample to validate these findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-599
Number of pages5
JournalAdvances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii / Rossiiskaia akademiia nauk, Gerontologicheskoe obshchestvo
Volume33
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • cognitive function
  • dual-task
  • elderly
  • exercise
  • mood

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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