Effects of transdiagnostic group treatment for sleep disturbances in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and autistic spectrum disorder: a pilot study

Miho Ishii, Wakako Ito, Yuki Karube, Yuko Ogawa, Anna Tagawa, Shunta Maeda, Hideki Sato, Toru Takahashi, Natsumi Inomata, Hajime Narisawa, Yoshikazu Takaesu, Koichiro Watanabe, Isa Okajima*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Although adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have sleep problems, few studies have verified the effect of a psychological approach specific to sleep–wake rhythms on these sleep disturbances. Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to develop a trans-diagnostic approach with sleep scheduling and regularity of sleep duration as core modules, and to examine the effect of the intervention in adult ADHD and/or ASD subjects with sleep disturbances. This was a within-group pilot study. Ten patients with adult ADHD and/or ASD with sleep disturbances (10 males, age: 27.4 ± 5.6 years) took part in a 90-min weekly group intervention for 5 weeks. All participants were assessed on scales for sleep complaints, anxiety, depression, and symptoms of ADHD and ASD before and after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. The results showed that the intervention significantly improved sleep disturbances at post-intervention (p = 0.003, d = 1.30, 95% CI 0.31–2.28) and at the 3-month follow-up (p = 0.035, d = 0.41, 95% CI − 0.48 to 1.30). In addition, attention switching for ASD symptoms was significantly reduced post-intervention (p = 0.031, d = 1.16, 95% CI 0.19–2.13). This is the first pilot study of a trans-diagnostic group approach for adult ADHD and/or ASD with sleep disturbances. The intervention primarily led to an improvement of sleep disturbances, followed by improvement of disease-specific symptoms in adult subjects with ADHD and ASD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-180
Number of pages8
JournalSleep and Biological Rhythms
Volume20
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • Attention switching
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Sleep–wake rhythms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)

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