Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids

Hirosuke Kanamoto*, Atsushi Yamashita, Hiroshi Asao, Satoru Okumura, Hisabumi Takase, Masahira Hattori, Akiho Yokota, Ken Ichi Tomizawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

122 Citations (Scopus)


Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to ∼36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-217
Number of pages13
JournalTransgenic Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Apr
Externally publishedYes


  • Lettuce
  • Plastid genome
  • Plastid transformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Plant Science
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science


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