The activated or catalyzed surface conditions for initiating electroless metal deposition were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis. Four mixed PdCl//2/SnCl//2 catalysts, including two commercial samples, and five accelerators (NaOH, HCl, H//2SO//4, NH//4OH, and NH//4BF//4) were used in this study. The acceleration with NaOH gave the finest remaining particles which were almost bare active nuclei, while the acceleration with ammonate group (NH//4OH and NH//4BF//4) coagulated small particles to produce high density particles. The electron diffraction paterns after activation, for the catalysts prepared in laboratory, showed amorphous broad diffraction rings which were explained as fcc structure, while for the commercial catalysts, they showed relatively sharp and netlike profiles which could be attributed to orthorhombic structure. 8 rerfs.
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Journal of the Electrochemical Society|
|Publication status||Published - 1980 Nov|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Surfaces and Interfaces