Electronic and Vibrational Spectra of Positive Polarons and Bipolarons in Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Doped with Ferric Chloride

Jun Yamamoto, Yukio Furukawa

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    38 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We studied the carriers generated in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) upon FeCl3 vapor and solution doping using visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) absorption, infrared (IR), and Raman spectroscopy. Upon doping with an FeCl3 solution in air, the main carriers that were generated were positive polarons. Upon doping with FeCl3 vapor, positive polarons also formed initially, but at higher doping levels, positive bipolarons formed with the concomitant disappearance of the positive polarons. The Raman and IR spectra of the positive bipolarons and the positive polarons were obtained. Raman spectroscopy is very useful for characterizing positive polarons and bipolarons. The Raman results indicated that the positive bipolarons were converted to polarons upon heating to 85°C, indicating that the positive bipolarons formed a metastable state. The temporal changes in the electrical conductivity of a P3HT film upon doping with FeCl3 vapor were measured. The conductivity reached a maximum and then decreased by 2 orders of magnitude. This result suggests that the mobility of the polarons is approximately 100 times as high as that of the bipolarons. (Graph Presented).

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)4788-4794
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
    Volume119
    Issue number13
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2015 Apr 2

    Fingerprint

    Polarons
    polarons
    Vibrational spectra
    electronic spectra
    vibrational spectra
    chlorides
    Doping (additives)
    Vapors
    vapors
    Raman spectroscopy
    Infrared absorption
    ferric chloride
    poly(3-hexylthiophene)
    Absorption spectroscopy
    metastable state
    infrared absorption
    Infrared spectroscopy
    absorption spectroscopy
    infrared spectra
    infrared spectroscopy

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
    • Materials Chemistry
    • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

    Cite this

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    title = "Electronic and Vibrational Spectra of Positive Polarons and Bipolarons in Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Doped with Ferric Chloride",
    abstract = "We studied the carriers generated in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) upon FeCl3 vapor and solution doping using visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) absorption, infrared (IR), and Raman spectroscopy. Upon doping with an FeCl3 solution in air, the main carriers that were generated were positive polarons. Upon doping with FeCl3 vapor, positive polarons also formed initially, but at higher doping levels, positive bipolarons formed with the concomitant disappearance of the positive polarons. The Raman and IR spectra of the positive bipolarons and the positive polarons were obtained. Raman spectroscopy is very useful for characterizing positive polarons and bipolarons. The Raman results indicated that the positive bipolarons were converted to polarons upon heating to 85°C, indicating that the positive bipolarons formed a metastable state. The temporal changes in the electrical conductivity of a P3HT film upon doping with FeCl3 vapor were measured. The conductivity reached a maximum and then decreased by 2 orders of magnitude. This result suggests that the mobility of the polarons is approximately 100 times as high as that of the bipolarons. (Graph Presented).",
    author = "Jun Yamamoto and Yukio Furukawa",
    year = "2015",
    month = "4",
    day = "2",
    doi = "10.1021/jp512654b",
    language = "English",
    volume = "119",
    pages = "4788--4794",
    journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry B Materials",
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    publisher = "American Chemical Society",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Electronic and Vibrational Spectra of Positive Polarons and Bipolarons in Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Doped with Ferric Chloride

    AU - Yamamoto, Jun

    AU - Furukawa, Yukio

    PY - 2015/4/2

    Y1 - 2015/4/2

    N2 - We studied the carriers generated in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) upon FeCl3 vapor and solution doping using visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) absorption, infrared (IR), and Raman spectroscopy. Upon doping with an FeCl3 solution in air, the main carriers that were generated were positive polarons. Upon doping with FeCl3 vapor, positive polarons also formed initially, but at higher doping levels, positive bipolarons formed with the concomitant disappearance of the positive polarons. The Raman and IR spectra of the positive bipolarons and the positive polarons were obtained. Raman spectroscopy is very useful for characterizing positive polarons and bipolarons. The Raman results indicated that the positive bipolarons were converted to polarons upon heating to 85°C, indicating that the positive bipolarons formed a metastable state. The temporal changes in the electrical conductivity of a P3HT film upon doping with FeCl3 vapor were measured. The conductivity reached a maximum and then decreased by 2 orders of magnitude. This result suggests that the mobility of the polarons is approximately 100 times as high as that of the bipolarons. (Graph Presented).

    AB - We studied the carriers generated in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) upon FeCl3 vapor and solution doping using visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) absorption, infrared (IR), and Raman spectroscopy. Upon doping with an FeCl3 solution in air, the main carriers that were generated were positive polarons. Upon doping with FeCl3 vapor, positive polarons also formed initially, but at higher doping levels, positive bipolarons formed with the concomitant disappearance of the positive polarons. The Raman and IR spectra of the positive bipolarons and the positive polarons were obtained. Raman spectroscopy is very useful for characterizing positive polarons and bipolarons. The Raman results indicated that the positive bipolarons were converted to polarons upon heating to 85°C, indicating that the positive bipolarons formed a metastable state. The temporal changes in the electrical conductivity of a P3HT film upon doping with FeCl3 vapor were measured. The conductivity reached a maximum and then decreased by 2 orders of magnitude. This result suggests that the mobility of the polarons is approximately 100 times as high as that of the bipolarons. (Graph Presented).

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