Collective behavior emerging out of self-organization is one of the most striking properties of an animal group. Typically, it is hypothesized that each individual in an animal group tends to align its direction of motion with those of its neighbors. Most previous models for collective behavior assume an explicit alignment rule, by which an agent matches its velocity with that of neighbors in a certain neighborhood, to reproduce a collective order pattern by simple interactions. Recent empirical studies, however, suggest that there is no evidence for explicit matching of velocity, and that collective polarization arises from interactions other than those that follow the explicit alignment rule. We here propose a new lattice-based computational model that does not incorporate the explicit alignment rule but is based instead on mutual anticipation and asynchronous updating. Moreover, we show that this model can realize densely collective motion with high polarity. Furthermore, we focus on the behavior of a pair of individuals, and find that the turning response is drastically changed depending on the distance between two individuals rather than the relative heading, and is consistent with the empirical observations. Therefore, the present results suggest that our approach provides an alternative model for collective behavior.
ASJC Scopus subject areas