Enhancing the weight training experience

A comparison of limb kinematics and EMG activity on three machines

Yasushi Koyama, Hirofumi Kobayashi, Shuji Suzuki, Roger M. Enoka

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    16 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The aim of the study was to compare the kinematics and the timing and amount of electromyographic (EMG) activity during the lat-pull down exercise performed on machines that afforded one, two, or three degrees of freedom for the movement. Seven healthy men (age 29.4 ± 5.6 years) participated in the study. The exercise was performed with a 30% 1-RM load. Three types of machines with varying degrees of freedom were used: Type 1, the conventional device that restricted the movement to a frontal plane; Type 2, the addition of forearm supination-pronation; Type 3, the addition of forearm supination-pronation and horizontal extension-flexion about the shoulder. All exercises involved a technique known as beginning movement load (BML) training in which light loads are lifted with a relaxation-lengthening-shortening sequence of muscle activation. The Type-3 machine showed: (1) the greatest vertical displacement of the wrist (p < 0.05); (2) the greatest abduction-adduction displacement about the shoulder (p < 0.01); (3) the least flexion-extension displacement about the elbow joint (p < 0.01); (4) a peak vertical velocity for the shoulder that preceded (p < 0.01) those for the elbow and then wrist during the pull-down phase; (5) a progressive proximal-to-distal sequence of EMG activation involving the serratus anterior, posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii muscles; (6) a reversal of the roles for biceps and triceps brachii during the pull-down phase. These results suggest that BML exercises with greater degrees of freedom can enhance the association between training actions and functional activities.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)789-801
    Number of pages13
    JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
    Volume109
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jul

    Fingerprint

    Biomechanical Phenomena
    Extremities
    Exercise
    Pronation
    Supination
    Weights and Measures
    Wrist
    Forearm
    Elbow Joint
    Muscles
    Superficial Back Muscles
    Elbow
    Equipment and Supplies

    Keywords

    • Beginning movement load training
    • Dodge movement
    • EMG activity
    • Kinematics

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
    • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
    • Physiology (medical)

    Cite this

    Enhancing the weight training experience : A comparison of limb kinematics and EMG activity on three machines. / Koyama, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Shuji; Enoka, Roger M.

    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 109, No. 5, 07.2010, p. 789-801.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Koyama, Yasushi ; Kobayashi, Hirofumi ; Suzuki, Shuji ; Enoka, Roger M. / Enhancing the weight training experience : A comparison of limb kinematics and EMG activity on three machines. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010 ; Vol. 109, No. 5. pp. 789-801.
    @article{503c607afc7b4c858e64935edb74d789,
    title = "Enhancing the weight training experience: A comparison of limb kinematics and EMG activity on three machines",
    abstract = "The aim of the study was to compare the kinematics and the timing and amount of electromyographic (EMG) activity during the lat-pull down exercise performed on machines that afforded one, two, or three degrees of freedom for the movement. Seven healthy men (age 29.4 ± 5.6 years) participated in the study. The exercise was performed with a 30{\%} 1-RM load. Three types of machines with varying degrees of freedom were used: Type 1, the conventional device that restricted the movement to a frontal plane; Type 2, the addition of forearm supination-pronation; Type 3, the addition of forearm supination-pronation and horizontal extension-flexion about the shoulder. All exercises involved a technique known as beginning movement load (BML) training in which light loads are lifted with a relaxation-lengthening-shortening sequence of muscle activation. The Type-3 machine showed: (1) the greatest vertical displacement of the wrist (p < 0.05); (2) the greatest abduction-adduction displacement about the shoulder (p < 0.01); (3) the least flexion-extension displacement about the elbow joint (p < 0.01); (4) a peak vertical velocity for the shoulder that preceded (p < 0.01) those for the elbow and then wrist during the pull-down phase; (5) a progressive proximal-to-distal sequence of EMG activation involving the serratus anterior, posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii muscles; (6) a reversal of the roles for biceps and triceps brachii during the pull-down phase. These results suggest that BML exercises with greater degrees of freedom can enhance the association between training actions and functional activities.",
    keywords = "Beginning movement load training, Dodge movement, EMG activity, Kinematics",
    author = "Yasushi Koyama and Hirofumi Kobayashi and Shuji Suzuki and Enoka, {Roger M.}",
    year = "2010",
    month = "7",
    doi = "10.1007/s00421-010-1421-y",
    language = "English",
    volume = "109",
    pages = "789--801",
    journal = "European Journal of Applied Physiology",
    issn = "1439-6319",
    publisher = "Springer Verlag",
    number = "5",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Enhancing the weight training experience

    T2 - A comparison of limb kinematics and EMG activity on three machines

    AU - Koyama, Yasushi

    AU - Kobayashi, Hirofumi

    AU - Suzuki, Shuji

    AU - Enoka, Roger M.

    PY - 2010/7

    Y1 - 2010/7

    N2 - The aim of the study was to compare the kinematics and the timing and amount of electromyographic (EMG) activity during the lat-pull down exercise performed on machines that afforded one, two, or three degrees of freedom for the movement. Seven healthy men (age 29.4 ± 5.6 years) participated in the study. The exercise was performed with a 30% 1-RM load. Three types of machines with varying degrees of freedom were used: Type 1, the conventional device that restricted the movement to a frontal plane; Type 2, the addition of forearm supination-pronation; Type 3, the addition of forearm supination-pronation and horizontal extension-flexion about the shoulder. All exercises involved a technique known as beginning movement load (BML) training in which light loads are lifted with a relaxation-lengthening-shortening sequence of muscle activation. The Type-3 machine showed: (1) the greatest vertical displacement of the wrist (p < 0.05); (2) the greatest abduction-adduction displacement about the shoulder (p < 0.01); (3) the least flexion-extension displacement about the elbow joint (p < 0.01); (4) a peak vertical velocity for the shoulder that preceded (p < 0.01) those for the elbow and then wrist during the pull-down phase; (5) a progressive proximal-to-distal sequence of EMG activation involving the serratus anterior, posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii muscles; (6) a reversal of the roles for biceps and triceps brachii during the pull-down phase. These results suggest that BML exercises with greater degrees of freedom can enhance the association between training actions and functional activities.

    AB - The aim of the study was to compare the kinematics and the timing and amount of electromyographic (EMG) activity during the lat-pull down exercise performed on machines that afforded one, two, or three degrees of freedom for the movement. Seven healthy men (age 29.4 ± 5.6 years) participated in the study. The exercise was performed with a 30% 1-RM load. Three types of machines with varying degrees of freedom were used: Type 1, the conventional device that restricted the movement to a frontal plane; Type 2, the addition of forearm supination-pronation; Type 3, the addition of forearm supination-pronation and horizontal extension-flexion about the shoulder. All exercises involved a technique known as beginning movement load (BML) training in which light loads are lifted with a relaxation-lengthening-shortening sequence of muscle activation. The Type-3 machine showed: (1) the greatest vertical displacement of the wrist (p < 0.05); (2) the greatest abduction-adduction displacement about the shoulder (p < 0.01); (3) the least flexion-extension displacement about the elbow joint (p < 0.01); (4) a peak vertical velocity for the shoulder that preceded (p < 0.01) those for the elbow and then wrist during the pull-down phase; (5) a progressive proximal-to-distal sequence of EMG activation involving the serratus anterior, posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii muscles; (6) a reversal of the roles for biceps and triceps brachii during the pull-down phase. These results suggest that BML exercises with greater degrees of freedom can enhance the association between training actions and functional activities.

    KW - Beginning movement load training

    KW - Dodge movement

    KW - EMG activity

    KW - Kinematics

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77954145334&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77954145334&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1007/s00421-010-1421-y

    DO - 10.1007/s00421-010-1421-y

    M3 - Article

    VL - 109

    SP - 789

    EP - 801

    JO - European Journal of Applied Physiology

    JF - European Journal of Applied Physiology

    SN - 1439-6319

    IS - 5

    ER -