Thailand, with its abundant agricultural resources, is a well positioned to deploy biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. To enhance the self-dependence on the energy and economy in rural areas, the government has implemented the 'Alternative Energy Development Plan: AEDP 2012-2021', aiming to increase the amount of alternative and renewable energy utilization. To ensure the sustainability of the biodiesel production not only research on high efficient production technology improvement is need, but also studies on the impacts from promoting the non-food feedstock such as Jatropha. This study aims to evaluate environmental and social impacts of Jatropha-based biodiesel production by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) concept. The scope of this study is defined as 'cradle-to-gate' which includesJatropha cultivation, harvesting, oil extraction and biodiesel production. Inventory data used in this study was developed byan on-site interview and consultation with Jatropha farmers and experts throughout the three provinces in the northern part of Thailand. The environmental impacts were analyzed by the modified LCA methodology called Environmental Load Point (ELP), formulated by the Nagata Laboratory of Waseda University. The weighting factor used in ELP developed by taking Thailand as a case study. The assessment of social impacts of Jatropha biodiesel systems referred to criteria indicated in the Global Bioenergy Partnership Sustainability Indicator for Bioenergy. The results show the environmental impacts of the Jatropha biodiesel production from a localized environmental viewpoint. The social impacts are focused on results of the change in income and job creation in the local community due to the establishment of biodiesel production system. These can be useful for the policy maker to promote the advantages of non-food biodiesel and enhance the cultivation areas and production plant to the rural in further.