Equilibrium analysis of the distribution of information in human society

Shigeki Goto*, Hisao Nojima

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper applies equilibrium analysis in micro-economics to analyze a stable structure in a model of human society. The structure is observed in the study of the distribution of information. It forms a three-layered hierarchy. These layers are called brains, gatekeepers and end users. The three-layer structure is widely observed in a variety of research fields. For example, in computer networks, core gateways correspond to brains, stub gateways behave like gatekeepers, and local networks are end users. The three-layer model is considered to be an essential extension of the popular "client-server" concept in computer science. This paper calculates the supply and demand curves in micro-economics to show how the equilibrium is established. The law of diminishing utility is utilized to represent the distribution of information or knowledge. The calculations are straightforward if the dependence of the end users on the other layers is taken into account. The results can explain many properties of the three-layer model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-130
Number of pages16
JournalArtificial Intelligence
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Distribution of information
  • Equilibrium
  • Price theory
  • Queuing theory
  • Three-layer structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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