Estimation of the fractions of luminescence of water at higher energy than Cerenkov-light threshold for various types of radiation

Yoshiyuki Hirano, Seiichi Yamamoto*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although the luminescence of water at a lower energy than the Cerenkov-light (CL) threshold has been found for various types of radiation, the fractions of the luminescence of water to the total produced light have not been obvious for radiations at a higher energy than the CL threshold because it is difficult to separate these two types of light. Thus, we used a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the fractions of the luminescence of water for various types of radiation at a higher energy than the CL threshold to confirm the major component of the produced light. After we confirmed that the estimated light production of the luminescence of water could adequately simulate the experimental results, we calculated the produced light photons of this luminescence and the CL from water for protons (170 MeV), carbon ions (330 MeV/n), high-energy x-ray (6 MV) from a linear accelerator (LINAC), high-energy electrons (9 MeV) from LINAC, positrons (F-18, C-11, O-15, and N-13), and high-energy gamma photon radionuclides (Co-60). For protons, the major fraction of the produced light was the luminescence of water in addition to the CL from the prompt gamma photons produced by the nuclear interactions. For carbon ions, the major fraction of the produced light was the luminescence of water and the CL produced by the secondary electrons in addition to the prompt gamma photons produced by the nuclear interactions. For high-energy x-ray and electrons from LINAC, the fractions of luminescence of water were 1/40.1 % to 0.2%. The fractions of luminescence of water for positrons were 0.2% to 1.5% and that for Co-60 was 0.4%. We conclude that the major fractions of light produced from x-ray and electrons from LINAC, positron radionuclides, and the Co-60 source are CL, with fractions of the luminescence of water from <0.1 % to 1.5%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number066005
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
Volume24
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 30
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • carbon ion
  • Cerenkov light
  • linear accelerator
  • luminescence of water
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • positrons
  • proton

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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