In this study, the efficacy of hand hygiene and cleaning of surfaces in a medical examination room was evaluated, with particular consideration for the contact behavior of healthcare workers. The contact behavior of medical doctors, a nurse, and patients was observed in a full-scale mock up medical examination room. The transfer of contaminants on surfaces was simulated using observation data, and the efficacy of hand hygiene and cleaning was evaluated. The effect of hand hygiene performed by the doctors was greater than that by the nurse because the number of contacts was higher for the doctor. The effect of cleaning surfaces was greater for the nurse than for the doctor because the nurse contacted more surfaces than the doctors. As a result of numerical analysis, we found that cleaning surfaces that are easily contaminated, such as the doctor's chair or doorknobs, decreased contamination on the hands by 20% and by 42% when combined with hand hygiene.