Evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides

Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Tomohiro Osugi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    20 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Probing undiscovered hypothalamic neuropeptides that play important roles in the regulation of pituitary function in vertebrates is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. In 2000, we discovered a novel hypothalamic dodecapeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release in quail and termed it gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). GnIH acts on the pituitary and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the hypothalamus via a novel G protein-coupled receptor for GnIH to inhibit gonadal development and maintenance by decreasing gonadotropin release and synthesis. Similar findings were observed in other avian species. Thus, GnIH is a key factor controlling avian reproduction. To give our findings a broader perspective, we also found GnIH homologous peptides in the hypothalamus of other vertebrates, such as mammals, reptiles, amphibians and teleosts. GnIH and its homologs share a common C-terminal LPXRFamide (X = L or Q) motif. A mammalian GnIH homolog also inhibited gonadotropin release in mammals like the GnIH action in birds. In contrast to higher vertebrates, hypophysiotropic activities of GnIH homologs were different in lower vertebrates. To clarify the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its homologs, we further sought to identify novel LPXRFamide peptides from the brain of sea lamprey and hagfish, two extant groups of the oldest lineage of vertebrates, Agnatha. In these agnathans, LPXRFamide peptide and its cDNA were identified only from the brain of hagfish. Based on these findings over the past decade, this paper summarizes the evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)30-33
    Number of pages4
    JournalGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
    Volume161
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009 Mar

    Fingerprint

    gonadotropins
    Gonadotropins
    hormones
    Hormones
    peptides
    Peptides
    gonadotropin release
    vertebrates
    Vertebrates
    Myxini
    Hagfishes
    hypothalamus
    Hypothalamus
    mammals
    Mammals
    brain
    Petromyzon marinus
    Petromyzon
    Neuroendocrinology
    neuropeptides

    Keywords

    • GnIH
    • GnRH
    • Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    • Gonadotropins
    • Hypothalamus
    • LPXRFamide peptides
    • Neuropeptides
    • Pituitary
    • Reproduction

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Endocrinology

    Cite this

    Evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides. / Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Osugi, Tomohiro.

    In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, Vol. 161, No. 1, 03.2009, p. 30-33.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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