Expanding the dimensionality of polymers populated with organic robust radicals toward flow cell application

Synthesis of TEMPO-crowded bottlebrush polymers using anionic polymerization and ROMP

Takashi Sukegawa, Issei Masuko, Kenichi Oyaizu, Hiroyuki Nishide

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    39 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Poly(norbornene)-g-poly(4-methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) (PNB-g-PTMA) was prepared by a grafting-through approach based on anionic polymerization of 4-methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl using a norbornene-substituted diphenylhexyllithium to yield a norbornene-functionalized macromonomer (NB-PTMA) and subsequent ring-opening metathesis polymerization of NB-PTMA using a Grubbs third-generation catalyst, which avoided critical side reactions involving the nitroxide radical of TEMPO moiety. The anionic polymerization resulted in high yields (>94%), narrow polydispersity indices (<1.20), and radical concentrations (0.95 radicals per monomer unit). The ROMP also resulted in high yields (>98%) and high radical concentrations (0.95 radicals per monomer unit), by virtue of the functional group tolerance of these reactions. Single molecular dimension of PNB-g-PTMA was measured by dynamic light scattering and by atomic force microscopy (AFM), which precisely reflected the bottlebrush structure to reveal the presence of the TEMPO group crowded at the periphery of the molecule. The lengths of PNB-g-PTMA along the macromolecular side chains and the polynorbornene main chain were both approximately equal to the theoretical lengths estimated by the degree of polymerization for each chain. The number-average diameter of PNB-g-PTMA in THF increased with initial NB-PTMA ratio to the Grubbs catalyst. Photo-cross-linked thin layer electrodes of PNB-g-PTMA demonstrated the reversible redox reaction at 0.80 V vs Ag/AgCl corresponding to the TEMPO/TEMPO+ couple and quantitative charging/discharging processes even at 120 C rate (i.e., full charging in 30 s). As a novel application of redox-active polymers, PNB-g-PTMA exhibited 95% efficiency of the theoretical charge capacity in a flow cell system, based on the unique properties of bottlebrush polymers such as the defined molecular dimension and relatively low solution viscosity in comparison with corresponding linear polymers.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)8611-8617
    Number of pages7
    JournalMacromolecules
    Volume47
    Issue number24
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec 23

    Fingerprint

    Anionic polymerization
    Polymers
    Catalysts
    Redox reactions
    Ring opening polymerization
    Polydispersity
    Dynamic light scattering
    Functional groups
    Atomic force microscopy
    Monomers
    Polymerization
    Viscosity
    Electrodes
    Molecules
    TEMPO
    3-hydroxyphenyltrimethylammonium

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Organic Chemistry
    • Materials Chemistry
    • Polymers and Plastics
    • Inorganic Chemistry

    Cite this

    @article{2b4ea650a2a145c48507aa5205314250,
    title = "Expanding the dimensionality of polymers populated with organic robust radicals toward flow cell application: Synthesis of TEMPO-crowded bottlebrush polymers using anionic polymerization and ROMP",
    abstract = "Poly(norbornene)-g-poly(4-methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) (PNB-g-PTMA) was prepared by a grafting-through approach based on anionic polymerization of 4-methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl using a norbornene-substituted diphenylhexyllithium to yield a norbornene-functionalized macromonomer (NB-PTMA) and subsequent ring-opening metathesis polymerization of NB-PTMA using a Grubbs third-generation catalyst, which avoided critical side reactions involving the nitroxide radical of TEMPO moiety. The anionic polymerization resulted in high yields (>94{\%}), narrow polydispersity indices (<1.20), and radical concentrations (0.95 radicals per monomer unit). The ROMP also resulted in high yields (>98{\%}) and high radical concentrations (0.95 radicals per monomer unit), by virtue of the functional group tolerance of these reactions. Single molecular dimension of PNB-g-PTMA was measured by dynamic light scattering and by atomic force microscopy (AFM), which precisely reflected the bottlebrush structure to reveal the presence of the TEMPO group crowded at the periphery of the molecule. The lengths of PNB-g-PTMA along the macromolecular side chains and the polynorbornene main chain were both approximately equal to the theoretical lengths estimated by the degree of polymerization for each chain. The number-average diameter of PNB-g-PTMA in THF increased with initial NB-PTMA ratio to the Grubbs catalyst. Photo-cross-linked thin layer electrodes of PNB-g-PTMA demonstrated the reversible redox reaction at 0.80 V vs Ag/AgCl corresponding to the TEMPO/TEMPO+ couple and quantitative charging/discharging processes even at 120 C rate (i.e., full charging in 30 s). As a novel application of redox-active polymers, PNB-g-PTMA exhibited 95{\%} efficiency of the theoretical charge capacity in a flow cell system, based on the unique properties of bottlebrush polymers such as the defined molecular dimension and relatively low solution viscosity in comparison with corresponding linear polymers.",
    author = "Takashi Sukegawa and Issei Masuko and Kenichi Oyaizu and Hiroyuki Nishide",
    year = "2014",
    month = "12",
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    doi = "10.1021/ma501632t",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Expanding the dimensionality of polymers populated with organic robust radicals toward flow cell application

    T2 - Synthesis of TEMPO-crowded bottlebrush polymers using anionic polymerization and ROMP

    AU - Sukegawa, Takashi

    AU - Masuko, Issei

    AU - Oyaizu, Kenichi

    AU - Nishide, Hiroyuki

    PY - 2014/12/23

    Y1 - 2014/12/23

    N2 - Poly(norbornene)-g-poly(4-methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) (PNB-g-PTMA) was prepared by a grafting-through approach based on anionic polymerization of 4-methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl using a norbornene-substituted diphenylhexyllithium to yield a norbornene-functionalized macromonomer (NB-PTMA) and subsequent ring-opening metathesis polymerization of NB-PTMA using a Grubbs third-generation catalyst, which avoided critical side reactions involving the nitroxide radical of TEMPO moiety. The anionic polymerization resulted in high yields (>94%), narrow polydispersity indices (<1.20), and radical concentrations (0.95 radicals per monomer unit). The ROMP also resulted in high yields (>98%) and high radical concentrations (0.95 radicals per monomer unit), by virtue of the functional group tolerance of these reactions. Single molecular dimension of PNB-g-PTMA was measured by dynamic light scattering and by atomic force microscopy (AFM), which precisely reflected the bottlebrush structure to reveal the presence of the TEMPO group crowded at the periphery of the molecule. The lengths of PNB-g-PTMA along the macromolecular side chains and the polynorbornene main chain were both approximately equal to the theoretical lengths estimated by the degree of polymerization for each chain. The number-average diameter of PNB-g-PTMA in THF increased with initial NB-PTMA ratio to the Grubbs catalyst. Photo-cross-linked thin layer electrodes of PNB-g-PTMA demonstrated the reversible redox reaction at 0.80 V vs Ag/AgCl corresponding to the TEMPO/TEMPO+ couple and quantitative charging/discharging processes even at 120 C rate (i.e., full charging in 30 s). As a novel application of redox-active polymers, PNB-g-PTMA exhibited 95% efficiency of the theoretical charge capacity in a flow cell system, based on the unique properties of bottlebrush polymers such as the defined molecular dimension and relatively low solution viscosity in comparison with corresponding linear polymers.

    AB - Poly(norbornene)-g-poly(4-methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) (PNB-g-PTMA) was prepared by a grafting-through approach based on anionic polymerization of 4-methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl using a norbornene-substituted diphenylhexyllithium to yield a norbornene-functionalized macromonomer (NB-PTMA) and subsequent ring-opening metathesis polymerization of NB-PTMA using a Grubbs third-generation catalyst, which avoided critical side reactions involving the nitroxide radical of TEMPO moiety. The anionic polymerization resulted in high yields (>94%), narrow polydispersity indices (<1.20), and radical concentrations (0.95 radicals per monomer unit). The ROMP also resulted in high yields (>98%) and high radical concentrations (0.95 radicals per monomer unit), by virtue of the functional group tolerance of these reactions. Single molecular dimension of PNB-g-PTMA was measured by dynamic light scattering and by atomic force microscopy (AFM), which precisely reflected the bottlebrush structure to reveal the presence of the TEMPO group crowded at the periphery of the molecule. The lengths of PNB-g-PTMA along the macromolecular side chains and the polynorbornene main chain were both approximately equal to the theoretical lengths estimated by the degree of polymerization for each chain. The number-average diameter of PNB-g-PTMA in THF increased with initial NB-PTMA ratio to the Grubbs catalyst. Photo-cross-linked thin layer electrodes of PNB-g-PTMA demonstrated the reversible redox reaction at 0.80 V vs Ag/AgCl corresponding to the TEMPO/TEMPO+ couple and quantitative charging/discharging processes even at 120 C rate (i.e., full charging in 30 s). As a novel application of redox-active polymers, PNB-g-PTMA exhibited 95% efficiency of the theoretical charge capacity in a flow cell system, based on the unique properties of bottlebrush polymers such as the defined molecular dimension and relatively low solution viscosity in comparison with corresponding linear polymers.

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