Expansion cone for the 3-inch PMTs of the KM3NeT optical modules

S. Adrian-Martinez, M. Ageron, J. A. Aguilar, F. Aharonian, S. Aiello, A. Albert, M. Alexandri, M. Ameli, E. G. Anassontzis, M. Anghinolfi, G. Anton, S. Anvar, M. Ardid, A. Assis Jesus, J. J. Aubert, R. Bakker, A. E. Ball, G. Barbarino, E. Barbarito, F. BarbatoB. Baret, M. De Bel, A. Belias, N. Bellou, E. Berbee, A. Berkien, A. Bersani, V. Bertin, S. Beurthey, S. Biagi, C. Bigongiari, B. Bigourdan, M. Billault, R. De Boer, H. Boer Rookhuizen, M. Bonori, M. Borghini, M. Bou-Cabo, B. Bouhadef, G. Bourlis, M. Bouwhuis, S. Bradbury, A. Brown, F. Bruni, J. Brunner, M. Brunoldi, J. Busto, G. Cacopardo, L. Caillat, D. Calvo Díaz-Aldagalán, A. Calzas, M. Canals, A. Capone, J. Carr, E. Castorina, S. Cecchini, A. Ceres, R. Cereseto, Th Chaleil, F. Chateau, T. Chiarusi, D. Choqueuse, P. E. Christopoulou, G. Chronis, O. Ciaffoni, M. Circella, R. Cocimano, F. Cohen, F. Colijn, R. Coniglione, M. Cordelli, A. Cosquer, M. Costa, P. Coyle, J. Craig, A. Creusot, C. Curtil, A. D'Amico, G. Damy, R. De Asmundis, G. De Bonis, G. Decock, P. Decowski, E. Delagnes, G. De Rosa, C. Distefano, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, Q. Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, J. Drogou, D. Drouhin, F. Druillole, L. Drury, D. Durand, G. A. Durand, T. Eberl, U. Emanuele, A. Enzenhöfer, J. P. Ernenwein, S. Escoffier, V. Espinosa, G. Etiope, P. Favali, D. Felea, M. Ferri, S. Ferry, V. Flaminio, F. Folger, A. Fotiou, U. Fritsch, D. Gajanana, R. Garaguso, G. P. Gasparini, F. Gasparoni, V. Gautard, F. Gensolen, K. Geyer, G. Giacomelli, I. Gialas, V. Giordano, J. Giraud, N. Gizani, A. Gleixner, C. Gojak, J. P. Gómez-González, K. Graf, D. Grasso, A. Grimaldi, R. Groenewegen, Z. Guédé, G. Guillard, F. Guilloux, R. Habel, G. Hallewell, H. Van Haren, J. Van Heerwaarden, A. Heijboer, E. Heine, J. J. Hernández-Rey, B. Herold, M. Van De Hoek, J. Hogenbirk, J. Hößl, C. C. Hsu, M. Imbesi, A. Jamieson, P. Jansweijer, M. De Jong, F. Jouvenot, M. Kadler, N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki, O. Kalekin, A. Kappes, M. Karolak, U. F. Katz, O. Kavatsyuk, P. Keller, Y. Kiskiras, R. Klein, H. Kok, H. Kontoyiannis, P. Kooijman, J. Koopstra, C. Kopper, A. Korporaal, P. Koske, A. Kouchner, S. Koutsoukos, I. Kreykenbohm, V. Kulikovskiy, M. Laan, C. La Fratta, P. Lagier, R. Lahmann, P. Lamare, G. Larosa, D. Lattuada, A. Leisos, D. Lenis, E. Leonora, H. Le Provost, G. Lim, C. D. Llorens, J. Lloret, H. Löhner, D. Lo Presti, P. Lotrus, F. Louis, F. Lucarelli, V. Lykousis, D. Malyshev, S. Mangano, E. C. Marcoulaki, A. Margiotta, G. Marinaro, A. Marinelli, O. Maris, E. Markopoulos, C. Markou, J. A. Martínez-Mora, A. Martini, J. Marvaldi, R. Masullo, G. Maurin, P. Migliozzi, E. Migneco, S. Minutoli, A. Miraglia, C. M. Mollo, M. Mongelli, E. Monmarthe, M. Morganti, S. Mos, Holger Martin Motz, Y. Moudden, G. Mul, P. Musico, M. Musumeci, Ch Naumann, M. Neff, C. Nicolaou, A. Orlando, D. Palioselitis, K. Papageorgiou, A. Papaikonomou, R. Papaleo, I. A. Papazoglou, G. E. Pǎvǎlas, H. Z. Peek, J. Perkin, P. Piattelli, V. Popa, T. Pradier, E. Presani, I. G. Priede, A. Psallidas, C. Rabouille, C. Racca, A. Radu, N. Randazzo, P. a. Rapidis, P. Razis, D. Real, C. Reed, S. Reito, L. K. Resvanis, G. Riccobene, R. Richter, K. Roensch, J. Rolin, J. Rose, J. Roux, A. Rovelli, A. Russo, G. V. Russo, F. Salesa, D. Samtleben, P. Sapienza, J. W. Schmelling, J. Schmid, J. Schnabel, K. Schroeder, J. P. Schuller, F. Schussler, D. Sciliberto, M. Sedita, T. Seitz, R. Shanidze, F. Simeone, I. Siotis, V. Sipala, C. Sollima, S. Sparnocchia, A. Spies, M. Spurio, T. Staller, S. Stavrakakis, G. Stavropoulos, J. Steijger, Th Stolarczyk, D. Stransky, M. Taiuti, A. Taylor, L. Thompson, P. Timmer, D. Tonoiu, S. Toscano, C. Touramanis, L. Trasatti, P. Traverso, A. Trovato, A. Tsirigotis, S. Tzamarias, E. Tzamariudaki, F. Urbano, B. Vallage, V. Van Elewyck, G. Vannoni, M. Vecchi, P. Vernin, S. Viola, D. Vivolo, S. Wagner, P. Werneke, R. J. White, G. Wijnker, J. Wilms, E. De Wolf, H. Yepes, V. Zhukov, E. Zonca, J. D. Zornoza, J. Zúñiga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Detection of high-energy neutrinos from distant astrophysical sources will open a new window on the Universe. The detection principle exploits the measurement of Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles resulting from neutrino interactions in the matter containing the telescope. A novel multi-PMT digital optical module (DOM) was developed to contain 31 3-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to maximize the detector sensitivity, each PMT will be surrounded by an expansion cone which collects photons that would otherwise miss the photocathode. Results for various angles of incidence with respect to the PMT surface indicate an increase in collection efficiency by 30% on average for angles up to 45° with respect to the perpendicular. Ray-tracing calculations could reproduce the measurements, allowing to estimate an increase in the overall photocathode sensitivity, integrated over all angles of incidence, by 27% (for a single PMT). Prototype DOMs, being built by the KM3NeT consortium, will be equipped with these expansion cones.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberT03006
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Mar
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Photomultipliers
photomultiplier tubes
Cones
Tube
cones
Cone
modules
Module
expansion
Photocathodes
photocathodes
Angle
Neutrinos
Incidence
neutrinos
incidence
Ray Tracing
Ray tracing
Charged particles
ray tracing

Keywords

  • Cherenkov detectors
  • Instrument optimization
  • Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics
  • Optical detector readout concepts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Mathematical Physics

Cite this

Adrian-Martinez, S., Ageron, M., Aguilar, J. A., Aharonian, F., Aiello, S., Albert, A., ... Zúñiga, J. (2013). Expansion cone for the 3-inch PMTs of the KM3NeT optical modules. Journal of Instrumentation, 8(3), [T03006]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/8/03/T03006

Expansion cone for the 3-inch PMTs of the KM3NeT optical modules. / Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Alexandri, M.; Ameli, M.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A.; Aubert, J. J.; Bakker, R.; Ball, A. E.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; De Bel, M.; Belias, A.; Bellou, N.; Berbee, E.; Berkien, A.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bigourdan, B.; Billault, M.; De Boer, R.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bonori, M.; Borghini, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bradbury, S.; Brown, A.; Bruni, F.; Brunner, J.; Brunoldi, M.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calvo Díaz-Aldagalán, D.; Calzas, A.; Canals, M.; Capone, A.; Carr, J.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Cereseto, R.; Chaleil, Th; Chateau, F.; Chiarusi, T.; Choqueuse, D.; Christopoulou, P. E.; Chronis, G.; Ciaffoni, O.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Cohen, F.; Colijn, F.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Costa, M.; Coyle, P.; Craig, J.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; D'Amico, A.; Damy, G.; De Asmundis, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, P.; Delagnes, E.; De Rosa, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drogou, J.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Drury, L.; Durand, D.; Durand, G. A.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Escoffier, S.; Espinosa, V.; Etiope, G.; Favali, P.; Felea, D.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fotiou, A.; Fritsch, U.; Gajanana, D.; Garaguso, R.; Gasparini, G. P.; Gasparoni, F.; Gautard, V.; Gensolen, F.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Gialas, I.; Giordano, V.; Giraud, J.; Gizani, N.; Gleixner, A.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Grasso, D.; Grimaldi, A.; Groenewegen, R.; Guédé, Z.; Guillard, G.; Guilloux, F.; Habel, R.; Hallewell, G.; Van Haren, H.; Van Heerwaarden, J.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Van De Hoek, M.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Imbesi, M.; Jamieson, A.; Jansweijer, P.; De Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U. F.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kiskiras, Y.; Klein, R.; Kok, H.; Kontoyiannis, H.; Kooijman, P.; Koopstra, J.; Kopper, C.; Korporaal, A.; Koske, P.; Kouchner, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Laan, M.; La Fratta, C.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Leonora, E.; Le Provost, H.; Lim, G.; Llorens, C. D.; Lloret, J.; Löhner, H.; Lo Presti, D.; Lotrus, P.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lykousis, V.; Malyshev, D.; Mangano, S.; Marcoulaki, E. C.; Margiotta, A.; Marinaro, G.; Marinelli, A.; Maris, O.; Markopoulos, E.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Marvaldi, J.; Masullo, R.; Maurin, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Monmarthe, E.; Morganti, M.; Mos, S.; Motz, Holger Martin; Moudden, Y.; Mul, G.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, Ch; Neff, M.; Nicolaou, C.; Orlando, A.; Palioselitis, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Papazoglou, I. A.; Pǎvǎlas, G. E.; Peek, H. Z.; Perkin, J.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Priede, I. G.; Psallidas, A.; Rabouille, C.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P. a.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Reito, S.; Resvanis, L. K.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.; Rose, J.; Roux, J.; Rovelli, A.; Russo, A.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schmelling, J. W.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schroeder, K.; Schuller, J. P.; Schussler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Sollima, C.; Sparnocchia, S.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Staller, T.; Stavrakakis, S.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, Th; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, A.; Thompson, L.; Timmer, P.; Tonoiu, D.; Toscano, S.; Touramanis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Traverso, P.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urbano, F.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Werneke, P.; White, R. J.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; De Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zhukov, V.; Zonca, E.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

In: Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 8, No. 3, T03006, 03.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Adrian-Martinez, S, Ageron, M, Aguilar, JA, Aharonian, F, Aiello, S, Albert, A, Alexandri, M, Ameli, M, Anassontzis, EG, Anghinolfi, M, Anton, G, Anvar, S, Ardid, M, Assis Jesus, A, Aubert, JJ, Bakker, R, Ball, AE, Barbarino, G, Barbarito, E, Barbato, F, Baret, B, De Bel, M, Belias, A, Bellou, N, Berbee, E, Berkien, A, Bersani, A, Bertin, V, Beurthey, S, Biagi, S, Bigongiari, C, Bigourdan, B, Billault, M, De Boer, R, Boer Rookhuizen, H, Bonori, M, Borghini, M, Bou-Cabo, M, Bouhadef, B, Bourlis, G, Bouwhuis, M, Bradbury, S, Brown, A, Bruni, F, Brunner, J, Brunoldi, M, Busto, J, Cacopardo, G, Caillat, L, Calvo Díaz-Aldagalán, D, Calzas, A, Canals, M, Capone, A, Carr, J, Castorina, E, Cecchini, S, Ceres, A, Cereseto, R, Chaleil, T, Chateau, F, Chiarusi, T, Choqueuse, D, Christopoulou, PE, Chronis, G, Ciaffoni, O, Circella, M, Cocimano, R, Cohen, F, Colijn, F, Coniglione, R, Cordelli, M, Cosquer, A, Costa, M, Coyle, P, Craig, J, Creusot, A, Curtil, C, D'Amico, A, Damy, G, De Asmundis, R, De Bonis, G, Decock, G, Decowski, P, Delagnes, E, De Rosa, G, Distefano, C, Donzaud, C, Dornic, D, Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q, Drogou, J, Drouhin, D, Druillole, F, Drury, L, Durand, D, Durand, GA, Eberl, T, Emanuele, U, Enzenhöfer, A, Ernenwein, JP, Escoffier, S, Espinosa, V, Etiope, G, Favali, P, Felea, D, Ferri, M, Ferry, S, Flaminio, V, Folger, F, Fotiou, A, Fritsch, U, Gajanana, D, Garaguso, R, Gasparini, GP, Gasparoni, F, Gautard, V, Gensolen, F, Geyer, K, Giacomelli, G, Gialas, I, Giordano, V, Giraud, J, Gizani, N, Gleixner, A, Gojak, C, Gómez-González, JP, Graf, K, Grasso, D, Grimaldi, A, Groenewegen, R, Guédé, Z, Guillard, G, Guilloux, F, Habel, R, Hallewell, G, Van Haren, H, Van Heerwaarden, J, Heijboer, A, Heine, E, Hernández-Rey, JJ, Herold, B, Van De Hoek, M, Hogenbirk, J, Hößl, J, Hsu, CC, Imbesi, M, Jamieson, A, Jansweijer, P, De Jong, M, Jouvenot, F, Kadler, M, Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N, Kalekin, O, Kappes, A, Karolak, M, Katz, UF, Kavatsyuk, O, Keller, P, Kiskiras, Y, Klein, R, Kok, H, Kontoyiannis, H, Kooijman, P, Koopstra, J, Kopper, C, Korporaal, A, Koske, P, Kouchner, A, Koutsoukos, S, Kreykenbohm, I, Kulikovskiy, V, Laan, M, La Fratta, C, Lagier, P, Lahmann, R, Lamare, P, Larosa, G, Lattuada, D, Leisos, A, Lenis, D, Leonora, E, Le Provost, H, Lim, G, Llorens, CD, Lloret, J, Löhner, H, Lo Presti, D, Lotrus, P, Louis, F, Lucarelli, F, Lykousis, V, Malyshev, D, Mangano, S, Marcoulaki, EC, Margiotta, A, Marinaro, G, Marinelli, A, Maris, O, Markopoulos, E, Markou, C, Martínez-Mora, JA, Martini, A, Marvaldi, J, Masullo, R, Maurin, G, Migliozzi, P, Migneco, E, Minutoli, S, Miraglia, A, Mollo, CM, Mongelli, M, Monmarthe, E, Morganti, M, Mos, S, Motz, HM, Moudden, Y, Mul, G, Musico, P, Musumeci, M, Naumann, C, Neff, M, Nicolaou, C, Orlando, A, Palioselitis, D, Papageorgiou, K, Papaikonomou, A, Papaleo, R, Papazoglou, IA, Pǎvǎlas, GE, Peek, HZ, Perkin, J, Piattelli, P, Popa, V, Pradier, T, Presani, E, Priede, IG, Psallidas, A, Rabouille, C, Racca, C, Radu, A, Randazzo, N, Rapidis, PA, Razis, P, Real, D, Reed, C, Reito, S, Resvanis, LK, Riccobene, G, Richter, R, Roensch, K, Rolin, J, Rose, J, Roux, J, Rovelli, A, Russo, A, Russo, GV, Salesa, F, Samtleben, D, Sapienza, P, Schmelling, JW, Schmid, J, Schnabel, J, Schroeder, K, Schuller, JP, Schussler, F, Sciliberto, D, Sedita, M, Seitz, T, Shanidze, R, Simeone, F, Siotis, I, Sipala, V, Sollima, C, Sparnocchia, S, Spies, A, Spurio, M, Staller, T, Stavrakakis, S, Stavropoulos, G, Steijger, J, Stolarczyk, T, Stransky, D, Taiuti, M, Taylor, A, Thompson, L, Timmer, P, Tonoiu, D, Toscano, S, Touramanis, C, Trasatti, L, Traverso, P, Trovato, A, Tsirigotis, A, Tzamarias, S, Tzamariudaki, E, Urbano, F, Vallage, B, Van Elewyck, V, Vannoni, G, Vecchi, M, Vernin, P, Viola, S, Vivolo, D, Wagner, S, Werneke, P, White, RJ, Wijnker, G, Wilms, J, De Wolf, E, Yepes, H, Zhukov, V, Zonca, E, Zornoza, JD & Zúñiga, J 2013, 'Expansion cone for the 3-inch PMTs of the KM3NeT optical modules', Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 8, no. 3, T03006. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/8/03/T03006
Adrian-Martinez S, Ageron M, Aguilar JA, Aharonian F, Aiello S, Albert A et al. Expansion cone for the 3-inch PMTs of the KM3NeT optical modules. Journal of Instrumentation. 2013 Mar;8(3). T03006. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/8/03/T03006
Adrian-Martinez, S. ; Ageron, M. ; Aguilar, J. A. ; Aharonian, F. ; Aiello, S. ; Albert, A. ; Alexandri, M. ; Ameli, M. ; Anassontzis, E. G. ; Anghinolfi, M. ; Anton, G. ; Anvar, S. ; Ardid, M. ; Assis Jesus, A. ; Aubert, J. J. ; Bakker, R. ; Ball, A. E. ; Barbarino, G. ; Barbarito, E. ; Barbato, F. ; Baret, B. ; De Bel, M. ; Belias, A. ; Bellou, N. ; Berbee, E. ; Berkien, A. ; Bersani, A. ; Bertin, V. ; Beurthey, S. ; Biagi, S. ; Bigongiari, C. ; Bigourdan, B. ; Billault, M. ; De Boer, R. ; Boer Rookhuizen, H. ; Bonori, M. ; Borghini, M. ; Bou-Cabo, M. ; Bouhadef, B. ; Bourlis, G. ; Bouwhuis, M. ; Bradbury, S. ; Brown, A. ; Bruni, F. ; Brunner, J. ; Brunoldi, M. ; Busto, J. ; Cacopardo, G. ; Caillat, L. ; Calvo Díaz-Aldagalán, D. ; Calzas, A. ; Canals, M. ; Capone, A. ; Carr, J. ; Castorina, E. ; Cecchini, S. ; Ceres, A. ; Cereseto, R. ; Chaleil, Th ; Chateau, F. ; Chiarusi, T. ; Choqueuse, D. ; Christopoulou, P. E. ; Chronis, G. ; Ciaffoni, O. ; Circella, M. ; Cocimano, R. ; Cohen, F. ; Colijn, F. ; Coniglione, R. ; Cordelli, M. ; Cosquer, A. ; Costa, M. ; Coyle, P. ; Craig, J. ; Creusot, A. ; Curtil, C. ; D'Amico, A. ; Damy, G. ; De Asmundis, R. ; De Bonis, G. ; Decock, G. ; Decowski, P. ; Delagnes, E. ; De Rosa, G. ; Distefano, C. ; Donzaud, C. ; Dornic, D. ; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q. ; Drogou, J. ; Drouhin, D. ; Druillole, F. ; Drury, L. ; Durand, D. ; Durand, G. A. ; Eberl, T. ; Emanuele, U. ; Enzenhöfer, A. ; Ernenwein, J. P. ; Escoffier, S. ; Espinosa, V. ; Etiope, G. ; Favali, P. ; Felea, D. ; Ferri, M. ; Ferry, S. ; Flaminio, V. ; Folger, F. ; Fotiou, A. ; Fritsch, U. ; Gajanana, D. ; Garaguso, R. ; Gasparini, G. P. ; Gasparoni, F. ; Gautard, V. ; Gensolen, F. ; Geyer, K. ; Giacomelli, G. ; Gialas, I. ; Giordano, V. ; Giraud, J. ; Gizani, N. ; Gleixner, A. ; Gojak, C. ; Gómez-González, J. P. ; Graf, K. ; Grasso, D. ; Grimaldi, A. ; Groenewegen, R. ; Guédé, Z. ; Guillard, G. ; Guilloux, F. ; Habel, R. ; Hallewell, G. ; Van Haren, H. ; Van Heerwaarden, J. ; Heijboer, A. ; Heine, E. ; Hernández-Rey, J. J. ; Herold, B. ; Van De Hoek, M. ; Hogenbirk, J. ; Hößl, J. ; Hsu, C. C. ; Imbesi, M. ; Jamieson, A. ; Jansweijer, P. ; De Jong, M. ; Jouvenot, F. ; Kadler, M. ; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N. ; Kalekin, O. ; Kappes, A. ; Karolak, M. ; Katz, U. F. ; Kavatsyuk, O. ; Keller, P. ; Kiskiras, Y. ; Klein, R. ; Kok, H. ; Kontoyiannis, H. ; Kooijman, P. ; Koopstra, J. ; Kopper, C. ; Korporaal, A. ; Koske, P. ; Kouchner, A. ; Koutsoukos, S. ; Kreykenbohm, I. ; Kulikovskiy, V. ; Laan, M. ; La Fratta, C. ; Lagier, P. ; Lahmann, R. ; Lamare, P. ; Larosa, G. ; Lattuada, D. ; Leisos, A. ; Lenis, D. ; Leonora, E. ; Le Provost, H. ; Lim, G. ; Llorens, C. D. ; Lloret, J. ; Löhner, H. ; Lo Presti, D. ; Lotrus, P. ; Louis, F. ; Lucarelli, F. ; Lykousis, V. ; Malyshev, D. ; Mangano, S. ; Marcoulaki, E. C. ; Margiotta, A. ; Marinaro, G. ; Marinelli, A. ; Maris, O. ; Markopoulos, E. ; Markou, C. ; Martínez-Mora, J. A. ; Martini, A. ; Marvaldi, J. ; Masullo, R. ; Maurin, G. ; Migliozzi, P. ; Migneco, E. ; Minutoli, S. ; Miraglia, A. ; Mollo, C. M. ; Mongelli, M. ; Monmarthe, E. ; Morganti, M. ; Mos, S. ; Motz, Holger Martin ; Moudden, Y. ; Mul, G. ; Musico, P. ; Musumeci, M. ; Naumann, Ch ; Neff, M. ; Nicolaou, C. ; Orlando, A. ; Palioselitis, D. ; Papageorgiou, K. ; Papaikonomou, A. ; Papaleo, R. ; Papazoglou, I. A. ; Pǎvǎlas, G. E. ; Peek, H. Z. ; Perkin, J. ; Piattelli, P. ; Popa, V. ; Pradier, T. ; Presani, E. ; Priede, I. G. ; Psallidas, A. ; Rabouille, C. ; Racca, C. ; Radu, A. ; Randazzo, N. ; Rapidis, P. a. ; Razis, P. ; Real, D. ; Reed, C. ; Reito, S. ; Resvanis, L. K. ; Riccobene, G. ; Richter, R. ; Roensch, K. ; Rolin, J. ; Rose, J. ; Roux, J. ; Rovelli, A. ; Russo, A. ; Russo, G. V. ; Salesa, F. ; Samtleben, D. ; Sapienza, P. ; Schmelling, J. W. ; Schmid, J. ; Schnabel, J. ; Schroeder, K. ; Schuller, J. P. ; Schussler, F. ; Sciliberto, D. ; Sedita, M. ; Seitz, T. ; Shanidze, R. ; Simeone, F. ; Siotis, I. ; Sipala, V. ; Sollima, C. ; Sparnocchia, S. ; Spies, A. ; Spurio, M. ; Staller, T. ; Stavrakakis, S. ; Stavropoulos, G. ; Steijger, J. ; Stolarczyk, Th ; Stransky, D. ; Taiuti, M. ; Taylor, A. ; Thompson, L. ; Timmer, P. ; Tonoiu, D. ; Toscano, S. ; Touramanis, C. ; Trasatti, L. ; Traverso, P. ; Trovato, A. ; Tsirigotis, A. ; Tzamarias, S. ; Tzamariudaki, E. ; Urbano, F. ; Vallage, B. ; Van Elewyck, V. ; Vannoni, G. ; Vecchi, M. ; Vernin, P. ; Viola, S. ; Vivolo, D. ; Wagner, S. ; Werneke, P. ; White, R. J. ; Wijnker, G. ; Wilms, J. ; De Wolf, E. ; Yepes, H. ; Zhukov, V. ; Zonca, E. ; Zornoza, J. D. ; Zúñiga, J. / Expansion cone for the 3-inch PMTs of the KM3NeT optical modules. In: Journal of Instrumentation. 2013 ; Vol. 8, No. 3.
@article{2612086c98b146cba91546fee5e2dc7e,
title = "Expansion cone for the 3-inch PMTs of the KM3NeT optical modules",
abstract = "Detection of high-energy neutrinos from distant astrophysical sources will open a new window on the Universe. The detection principle exploits the measurement of Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles resulting from neutrino interactions in the matter containing the telescope. A novel multi-PMT digital optical module (DOM) was developed to contain 31 3-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to maximize the detector sensitivity, each PMT will be surrounded by an expansion cone which collects photons that would otherwise miss the photocathode. Results for various angles of incidence with respect to the PMT surface indicate an increase in collection efficiency by 30{\%} on average for angles up to 45° with respect to the perpendicular. Ray-tracing calculations could reproduce the measurements, allowing to estimate an increase in the overall photocathode sensitivity, integrated over all angles of incidence, by 27{\%} (for a single PMT). Prototype DOMs, being built by the KM3NeT consortium, will be equipped with these expansion cones.",
keywords = "Cherenkov detectors, Instrument optimization, Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics, Optical detector readout concepts",
author = "S. Adrian-Martinez and M. Ageron and Aguilar, {J. A.} and F. Aharonian and S. Aiello and A. Albert and M. Alexandri and M. Ameli and Anassontzis, {E. G.} and M. Anghinolfi and G. Anton and S. Anvar and M. Ardid and {Assis Jesus}, A. and Aubert, {J. J.} and R. Bakker and Ball, {A. E.} and G. Barbarino and E. Barbarito and F. Barbato and B. Baret and {De Bel}, M. and A. Belias and N. Bellou and E. Berbee and A. Berkien and A. Bersani and V. Bertin and S. Beurthey and S. Biagi and C. Bigongiari and B. Bigourdan and M. Billault and {De Boer}, R. and {Boer Rookhuizen}, H. and M. Bonori and M. Borghini and M. Bou-Cabo and B. Bouhadef and G. Bourlis and M. Bouwhuis and S. Bradbury and A. Brown and F. Bruni and J. Brunner and M. Brunoldi and J. Busto and G. Cacopardo and L. Caillat and {Calvo D{\'i}az-Aldagal{\'a}n}, D. and A. Calzas and M. Canals and A. Capone and J. Carr and E. Castorina and S. Cecchini and A. Ceres and R. Cereseto and Th Chaleil and F. Chateau and T. Chiarusi and D. Choqueuse and Christopoulou, {P. E.} and G. Chronis and O. Ciaffoni and M. Circella and R. Cocimano and F. Cohen and F. Colijn and R. Coniglione and M. Cordelli and A. Cosquer and M. Costa and P. Coyle and J. Craig and A. Creusot and C. Curtil and A. D'Amico and G. Damy and {De Asmundis}, R. and {De Bonis}, G. and G. Decock and P. Decowski and E. Delagnes and {De Rosa}, G. and C. Distefano and C. Donzaud and D. Dornic and Q. Dorosti-Hasankiadeh and J. Drogou and D. Drouhin and F. Druillole and L. Drury and D. Durand and Durand, {G. A.} and T. Eberl and U. Emanuele and A. Enzenh{\"o}fer and Ernenwein, {J. P.} and S. Escoffier and V. Espinosa and G. Etiope and P. Favali and D. Felea and M. Ferri and S. Ferry and V. Flaminio and F. Folger and A. Fotiou and U. Fritsch and D. Gajanana and R. Garaguso and Gasparini, {G. P.} and F. Gasparoni and V. Gautard and F. Gensolen and K. Geyer and G. Giacomelli and I. Gialas and V. Giordano and J. Giraud and N. Gizani and A. Gleixner and C. Gojak and G{\'o}mez-Gonz{\'a}lez, {J. P.} and K. Graf and D. Grasso and A. Grimaldi and R. Groenewegen and Z. Gu{\'e}d{\'e} and G. Guillard and F. Guilloux and R. Habel and G. Hallewell and {Van Haren}, H. and {Van Heerwaarden}, J. and A. Heijboer and E. Heine and Hern{\'a}ndez-Rey, {J. J.} and B. Herold and {Van De Hoek}, M. and J. Hogenbirk and J. H{\"o}{\ss}l and Hsu, {C. C.} and M. Imbesi and A. Jamieson and P. Jansweijer and {De Jong}, M. and F. Jouvenot and M. Kadler and N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki and O. Kalekin and A. Kappes and M. Karolak and Katz, {U. F.} and O. Kavatsyuk and P. Keller and Y. Kiskiras and R. Klein and H. Kok and H. Kontoyiannis and P. Kooijman and J. Koopstra and C. Kopper and A. Korporaal and P. Koske and A. Kouchner and S. Koutsoukos and I. Kreykenbohm and V. Kulikovskiy and M. Laan and {La Fratta}, C. and P. Lagier and R. Lahmann and P. Lamare and G. Larosa and D. Lattuada and A. Leisos and D. Lenis and E. Leonora and {Le Provost}, H. and G. Lim and Llorens, {C. D.} and J. Lloret and H. L{\"o}hner and {Lo Presti}, D. and P. Lotrus and F. Louis and F. Lucarelli and V. Lykousis and D. Malyshev and S. Mangano and Marcoulaki, {E. C.} and A. Margiotta and G. Marinaro and A. Marinelli and O. Maris and E. Markopoulos and C. Markou and Mart{\'i}nez-Mora, {J. A.} and A. Martini and J. Marvaldi and R. Masullo and G. Maurin and P. Migliozzi and E. Migneco and S. Minutoli and A. Miraglia and Mollo, {C. M.} and M. Mongelli and E. Monmarthe and M. Morganti and S. Mos and Motz, {Holger Martin} and Y. Moudden and G. Mul and P. Musico and M. Musumeci and Ch Naumann and M. Neff and C. Nicolaou and A. Orlando and D. Palioselitis and K. Papageorgiou and A. Papaikonomou and R. Papaleo and Papazoglou, {I. A.} and Pǎvǎlas, {G. E.} and Peek, {H. Z.} and J. Perkin and P. Piattelli and V. Popa and T. Pradier and E. Presani and Priede, {I. G.} and A. Psallidas and C. Rabouille and C. Racca and A. Radu and N. Randazzo and Rapidis, {P. a.} and P. Razis and D. Real and C. Reed and S. Reito and Resvanis, {L. K.} and G. Riccobene and R. Richter and K. Roensch and J. Rolin and J. Rose and J. Roux and A. Rovelli and A. Russo and Russo, {G. V.} and F. Salesa and D. Samtleben and P. Sapienza and Schmelling, {J. W.} and J. Schmid and J. Schnabel and K. Schroeder and Schuller, {J. P.} and F. Schussler and D. Sciliberto and M. Sedita and T. Seitz and R. Shanidze and F. Simeone and I. Siotis and V. Sipala and C. Sollima and S. Sparnocchia and A. Spies and M. Spurio and T. Staller and S. Stavrakakis and G. Stavropoulos and J. Steijger and Th Stolarczyk and D. Stransky and M. Taiuti and A. Taylor and L. Thompson and P. Timmer and D. Tonoiu and S. Toscano and C. Touramanis and L. Trasatti and P. Traverso and A. Trovato and A. Tsirigotis and S. Tzamarias and E. Tzamariudaki and F. Urbano and B. Vallage and {Van Elewyck}, V. and G. Vannoni and M. Vecchi and P. Vernin and S. Viola and D. Vivolo and S. Wagner and P. Werneke and White, {R. J.} and G. Wijnker and J. Wilms and {De Wolf}, E. and H. Yepes and V. Zhukov and E. Zonca and Zornoza, {J. D.} and J. Z{\'u}{\~n}iga",
year = "2013",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1088/1748-0221/8/03/T03006",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Journal of Instrumentation",
issn = "1748-0221",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Expansion cone for the 3-inch PMTs of the KM3NeT optical modules

AU - Adrian-Martinez, S.

AU - Ageron, M.

AU - Aguilar, J. A.

AU - Aharonian, F.

AU - Aiello, S.

AU - Albert, A.

AU - Alexandri, M.

AU - Ameli, M.

AU - Anassontzis, E. G.

AU - Anghinolfi, M.

AU - Anton, G.

AU - Anvar, S.

AU - Ardid, M.

AU - Assis Jesus, A.

AU - Aubert, J. J.

AU - Bakker, R.

AU - Ball, A. E.

AU - Barbarino, G.

AU - Barbarito, E.

AU - Barbato, F.

AU - Baret, B.

AU - De Bel, M.

AU - Belias, A.

AU - Bellou, N.

AU - Berbee, E.

AU - Berkien, A.

AU - Bersani, A.

AU - Bertin, V.

AU - Beurthey, S.

AU - Biagi, S.

AU - Bigongiari, C.

AU - Bigourdan, B.

AU - Billault, M.

AU - De Boer, R.

AU - Boer Rookhuizen, H.

AU - Bonori, M.

AU - Borghini, M.

AU - Bou-Cabo, M.

AU - Bouhadef, B.

AU - Bourlis, G.

AU - Bouwhuis, M.

AU - Bradbury, S.

AU - Brown, A.

AU - Bruni, F.

AU - Brunner, J.

AU - Brunoldi, M.

AU - Busto, J.

AU - Cacopardo, G.

AU - Caillat, L.

AU - Calvo Díaz-Aldagalán, D.

AU - Calzas, A.

AU - Canals, M.

AU - Capone, A.

AU - Carr, J.

AU - Castorina, E.

AU - Cecchini, S.

AU - Ceres, A.

AU - Cereseto, R.

AU - Chaleil, Th

AU - Chateau, F.

AU - Chiarusi, T.

AU - Choqueuse, D.

AU - Christopoulou, P. E.

AU - Chronis, G.

AU - Ciaffoni, O.

AU - Circella, M.

AU - Cocimano, R.

AU - Cohen, F.

AU - Colijn, F.

AU - Coniglione, R.

AU - Cordelli, M.

AU - Cosquer, A.

AU - Costa, M.

AU - Coyle, P.

AU - Craig, J.

AU - Creusot, A.

AU - Curtil, C.

AU - D'Amico, A.

AU - Damy, G.

AU - De Asmundis, R.

AU - De Bonis, G.

AU - Decock, G.

AU - Decowski, P.

AU - Delagnes, E.

AU - De Rosa, G.

AU - Distefano, C.

AU - Donzaud, C.

AU - Dornic, D.

AU - Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.

AU - Drogou, J.

AU - Drouhin, D.

AU - Druillole, F.

AU - Drury, L.

AU - Durand, D.

AU - Durand, G. A.

AU - Eberl, T.

AU - Emanuele, U.

AU - Enzenhöfer, A.

AU - Ernenwein, J. P.

AU - Escoffier, S.

AU - Espinosa, V.

AU - Etiope, G.

AU - Favali, P.

AU - Felea, D.

AU - Ferri, M.

AU - Ferry, S.

AU - Flaminio, V.

AU - Folger, F.

AU - Fotiou, A.

AU - Fritsch, U.

AU - Gajanana, D.

AU - Garaguso, R.

AU - Gasparini, G. P.

AU - Gasparoni, F.

AU - Gautard, V.

AU - Gensolen, F.

AU - Geyer, K.

AU - Giacomelli, G.

AU - Gialas, I.

AU - Giordano, V.

AU - Giraud, J.

AU - Gizani, N.

AU - Gleixner, A.

AU - Gojak, C.

AU - Gómez-González, J. P.

AU - Graf, K.

AU - Grasso, D.

AU - Grimaldi, A.

AU - Groenewegen, R.

AU - Guédé, Z.

AU - Guillard, G.

AU - Guilloux, F.

AU - Habel, R.

AU - Hallewell, G.

AU - Van Haren, H.

AU - Van Heerwaarden, J.

AU - Heijboer, A.

AU - Heine, E.

AU - Hernández-Rey, J. J.

AU - Herold, B.

AU - Van De Hoek, M.

AU - Hogenbirk, J.

AU - Hößl, J.

AU - Hsu, C. C.

AU - Imbesi, M.

AU - Jamieson, A.

AU - Jansweijer, P.

AU - De Jong, M.

AU - Jouvenot, F.

AU - Kadler, M.

AU - Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.

AU - Kalekin, O.

AU - Kappes, A.

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PY - 2013/3

Y1 - 2013/3

N2 - Detection of high-energy neutrinos from distant astrophysical sources will open a new window on the Universe. The detection principle exploits the measurement of Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles resulting from neutrino interactions in the matter containing the telescope. A novel multi-PMT digital optical module (DOM) was developed to contain 31 3-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to maximize the detector sensitivity, each PMT will be surrounded by an expansion cone which collects photons that would otherwise miss the photocathode. Results for various angles of incidence with respect to the PMT surface indicate an increase in collection efficiency by 30% on average for angles up to 45° with respect to the perpendicular. Ray-tracing calculations could reproduce the measurements, allowing to estimate an increase in the overall photocathode sensitivity, integrated over all angles of incidence, by 27% (for a single PMT). Prototype DOMs, being built by the KM3NeT consortium, will be equipped with these expansion cones.

AB - Detection of high-energy neutrinos from distant astrophysical sources will open a new window on the Universe. The detection principle exploits the measurement of Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles resulting from neutrino interactions in the matter containing the telescope. A novel multi-PMT digital optical module (DOM) was developed to contain 31 3-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to maximize the detector sensitivity, each PMT will be surrounded by an expansion cone which collects photons that would otherwise miss the photocathode. Results for various angles of incidence with respect to the PMT surface indicate an increase in collection efficiency by 30% on average for angles up to 45° with respect to the perpendicular. Ray-tracing calculations could reproduce the measurements, allowing to estimate an increase in the overall photocathode sensitivity, integrated over all angles of incidence, by 27% (for a single PMT). Prototype DOMs, being built by the KM3NeT consortium, will be equipped with these expansion cones.

KW - Cherenkov detectors

KW - Instrument optimization

KW - Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics

KW - Optical detector readout concepts

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84875715981&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84875715981&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1748-0221/8/03/T03006

DO - 10.1088/1748-0221/8/03/T03006

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84875715981

VL - 8

JO - Journal of Instrumentation

JF - Journal of Instrumentation

SN - 1748-0221

IS - 3

M1 - T03006

ER -