Extraction of apex beat waveform from acoustic pulse wave by sound sensing system using stochastic resonance

Etsunori Fujita*, Masahiro Horikawa, Yoshika Nobuhiro, Shinichiro Maeda, Shigeyuki Kojima, Yumi Ogura, Kohji Murata, Tomohiko Kisaka, Kazushi Taoda, Shigehiko Kaneko, Masao Yoshizumi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With a sound sensing system using stochastic resonance (4SR), it became possible to obtain an acoustic pulse wave (APW)—a waveform created via a mixture of apex beat and heart sound. We examined 50 subjects who were healthy, with no underlying cardiovascular diseases. We could determine boundary frequency (BF) using APW and phonocardiogram signals. APW data was divided into two bands, one from 0.5 Hz to BF, and a second one from BF to 50 Hz. This permitted the extraction of cardiac apex beat (CAB) and cardiac acoustic sound (CAS), respectively. BF could be expressed by a quadratic function of heart rate, and made it possible to collect CAB and CAS in real time. According to heart rate variability analysis, the fluctuation was 1/f, which indicated an efficient cardiac movement when heart rate was 70 to 80/min. In the frequency band between 0.5 Hz and BF, CAB readings collected from the precordial region resembled apex cardiogram data. The waveforms were classified into five types. Therefore, the new 4SR sensing system can be used as a physical diagnostic tool to obtain biological pulse wave data non-invasively and repeatedly over a long period, and it shows promise for broader applications, including AI analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13711
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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