Extremely low voltage operation near or below threshold voltage is a key circuit technology to improve the energy efficiency of information systems and to realize ultra-low power sensor nodes. However, it is difficult to operate conventional analog circuits based on amplifier at low voltage. Furthermore, PVT (Process, Voltage and Temperature) variation and random Vth variation degrade the minimum operation voltage and the energy efficiency in both digital and analog circuits. In this paper, extremely low power analog circuits based on comparator and switched capacitor as well as extremely low power digital circuits are presented. Many kinds of circuit technologies are applied to cope with the variation problem. Finally, image processing SoC that integrates digital and analog circuits is presented, where improvement of total performance by a cooperation of analog circuits and digital circuits is demonstrated.
- Energy efficiency
- Extremely low power
- Extremely low voltage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering