Fabrication of two-and three-dimensional photonic crystals of titania with submicrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography

Koichi Awazu, Xiaomin Wang, Makoto Fujimaki, Taketo Kuriyama, Akihide Sai, Yoshimichi Ohki, Hiroaki Imai

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    26 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals of titanium dioxide are predicted to have many advantages over semiconductor photonic crystals, e.g., silicon and GaAs: in particular, low optical loss in the near infrared region used for optical communication, low thermal expansion, and a refractive index which is close to that of optical fibers. However, it is difficult to create micronanostructures in titanium dioxide, since semiconductor microfabrication techniques cannot be applied to titanium dioxide. As the first step, we calculated the photonic band gap of titanium dioxide rod slab on Si O2. Band gap percent against thickness of the rod slab was also examined. Finally, we confirmed the most suitable structure for two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals. A deep x-ray lithography technique was employed to create a very deep and precise template. Liquid-phase deposition was then used to faithfully deposit a tightly packed layer of titanium oxide onto the template. Finally, the template was selectively removed to obtain a photonic nanostructure. We also calculated the photonic band gap for the 3D structure of Ti O2. A template for the most appropriate structure was fabricated using the method proposed by Yablonovitch. By employing the same method, we successfully obtained the 3D structure of Ti O2. The refractive index of the obtained Ti O2 followed by heating at 700 °C was determined as being 2.5, which is close to that of the anatase phase.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)934-939
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
    Volume23
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2005

    Fingerprint

    Photonic crystals
    Titanium dioxide
    Lithography
    titanium oxides
    lithography
    titanium
    Titanium
    photonics
    Fabrication
    X rays
    fabrication
    templates
    Photonic band gap
    crystals
    x rays
    Refractive index
    Semiconductor materials
    slabs
    rods
    Optical losses

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
    • Surfaces and Interfaces
    • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

    Cite this

    Fabrication of two-and three-dimensional photonic crystals of titania with submicrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography. / Awazu, Koichi; Wang, Xiaomin; Fujimaki, Makoto; Kuriyama, Taketo; Sai, Akihide; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Imai, Hiroaki.

    In: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2005, p. 934-939.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Sai, Akihide

    AU - Ohki, Yoshimichi

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