Factor structure of the TOEFL Internet-based test

Yasuyo Sawaki*, Lawrence J. Stricker, Andreas H. Oranje

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


This construct validation study investigated the factor structure of the Test of English as a Foreign Language™ Internet-based test (TOEFL® iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for a test form completed by participants in a field study. A higher-order factor model was identified, with a higher-order general factor (ESL/EFL ability) and four first-order factors for reading, listening, speaking and writing. Integrated Speaking and Writing tasks, which require language processing in multiple modalities, defined the target modalities (speaking and writing). These results broadly supported the current practice of reporting a total score and four scores corresponding to the modalities for the test, as well as the test design that permits the integrated tasks to contribute only to the scores of the target modalities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5-30
Number of pages26
JournalLanguage Testing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Jan
Externally publishedYes


  • Construct validity
  • ESL
  • Factor analysis
  • Integrated task
  • Language assessment
  • Score reporting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Linguistics and Language


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