Fat-Free Mass Index as a Surrogate Marker of Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass Index for Low Muscle Mass Screening in Sarcopenia

Ryoko Kawakami*, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Chiyoko Usui, Motohiko Miyachi, Suguru Torii, Taishi Midorikawa, Kaori Ishii, Isao Muraoka, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi, Koichiro Oka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between the fat-free mass index (FFMI; FFM/height2) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI; ASM/height2), measured using both bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and investigate the effects of age and obesity. We also evaluated the suitability of BIA-measured FFMI as a simple surrogate marker of the ASMI and calculated the optimal FFMI cutoff value for low muscle mass screening to diagnose sarcopenia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting and Participants: This study included 1313 adults (women, 33.6%) aged 40-87 years (mean age, 55 ± 10 years) from the WASEDA'S Health Study. Methods: Body composition was measured using multifrequency BIA and DXA. Low muscle mass was defined according to the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019. Results: BIA-measured FFMI showed strong positive correlations with both BIA- (r = 0.96) and DXA-measured (r = 0.95) ASMIs. Similarly, in the subgroup analysis according to age and obesity, the FFMI was correlated with the ASMI. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for screening low muscle mass defined by DXA-measured ASMI using BIA-measured FFMI values were 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) for men and 0.91 (95% CI 0.87-0.94) for women. The optimal BIA-measured FFMI cutoff values for screening low muscle mass defined by DXA-measured ASMI were 17.5 kg/m2 (sensitivity 89%, specificity 88%) for men and 14.6 kg/m2 (sensitivity 80%, specificity 86%) for women. Conclusions and Implications: The FFMI showed a strong positive correlation with BIA- and DXA-measured ASMIs, regardless of age and obesity. The FFMI could be a useful simple surrogate marker of the ASMI for low muscle mass screening in sarcopenia in community settings. The suggested FFMI cutoff values for predicting low muscle mass are <18 kg/m2 in men and <15 kg/m2 in women.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bioelectrical impedance
  • body composition
  • calf circumference
  • diagnosis
  • dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Health Policy
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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