Fermi gamma-ray space telescope observations of gamma-ray outbursts from 3C 454.3 in 2009 december and 2010 april

M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron & 79 others P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Corbel, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, L. Escande, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, Jun Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, N. Marchili, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, K. Nalewajko

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    110 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 454.3 underwent an extraordinary outburst in 2009 December when it became the brightest γ -ray source in the sky for over 1 week. Its daily flux measured with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope at photon energiesE > 100 MeV reached F100 = 22 ± 1 × 10 -6 photon cm-2 s-1, representing the highest daily flux of any blazar ever recorded in high-energy γ -rays. It again became the brightest source in the sky in 2010 April, triggering a pointed-mode observation by Fermi. The correlated γ -ray temporal and spectral properties during these exceptional events are presented and discussed. The main results show flux variability over time scales less than 3 hr and very mild spectral variability with an indication of gradual hardening preceding major flares. The light curves during periods of enhanced activity in 2008 July-August and 2010 December show strong resemblance, with a flux plateau of a few days preceding the major flare. No consistent loop pattern emerged in the γ -ray spectral index versus the flux plane as would be expected in acceleration and cooling scenarios. The maximum energy of a photon from 3C 454.3 is ≈20 GeV and a minimum Doppler factor of ≈13 is derived. The γ -ray spectrum of 3C 454.3 shows a significant spectral break between ≈2 and 3 GeV that is very weakly dependent on the flux state, even when the flux changes by an order of magnitude.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1383-1396
    Number of pages14
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume721
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010 Oct 1

    Fingerprint

    Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
    outburst
    gamma rays
    rays
    hardening
    energy
    plateau
    radio
    cooling
    timescale
    flares
    sky
    photons
    radio spectra
    quasars
    light curve
    plateaus
    indication
    telescopes
    index

    Keywords

    • Galaxies: active
    • Gamma rays: galaxies
    • Quasars: individual (3C 454.3)

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., ... Nalewajko, K. (2010). Fermi gamma-ray space telescope observations of gamma-ray outbursts from 3C 454.3 in 2009 december and 2010 april. Astrophysical Journal, 721(2), 1383-1396. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/721/2/1383

    Fermi gamma-ray space telescope observations of gamma-ray outbursts from 3C 454.3 in 2009 december and 2010 april. / Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Corbel, S.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Dermer, C. D.; De Angelis, A.; De Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Escande, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, Jun; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. H.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marchili, N.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nalewajko, K.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 721, No. 2, 01.10.2010, p. 1383-1396.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Bastieri, D, Bechtol, K, Bellazzini, R, Berenji, B, Blandford, RD, Bonamente, E, Borgland, AW, Bregeon, J, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Burnett, TH, Buson, S, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Caraveo, PA, Carrigan, S, Casandjian, JM, Cavazzuti, E, Cecchi, C, Çelik, Ö, Chekhtman, A, Cheung, CC, Chiang, J, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Corbel, S, Cutini, S, D'Ammando, F, Dermer, CD, De Angelis, A, De Palma, F, Digel, SW, Do Couto E Silva, E, Drell, PS, Dubois, R, Dumora, D, Escande, L, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, SJ, Ferrara, EC, Fuhrmann, L, Fukazawa, Y, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Gehrels, N, Germani, S, Giebels, B, Giglietto, N, Giommi, P, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Grenier, IA, Grove, JE, Guiriec, S, Hadasch, D, Hayashida, M, Hays, E, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Johnson, WN, Kamae, T, Katagiri, H, Kataoka, J, Knödlseder, J, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Larsson, S, Latronico, L, Lee, SH, Llena Garde, M, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lubrano, P, Madejski, GM, Makeev, A, Marchili, N, Mazziotta, MN, McEnery, JE, Mehault, J, Michelson, PF, Mizuno, T, Monte, C, Monzani, ME, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Nakamori, T & Nalewajko, K 2010, 'Fermi gamma-ray space telescope observations of gamma-ray outbursts from 3C 454.3 in 2009 december and 2010 april', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 721, no. 2, pp. 1383-1396. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/721/2/1383
    Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Bechtol, K. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Berenji, B. ; Blandford, R. D. ; Bonamente, E. ; Borgland, A. W. ; Bregeon, J. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Burnett, T. H. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Carrigan, S. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Cecchi, C. ; Çelik, Ö ; Chekhtman, A. ; Cheung, C. C. ; Chiang, J. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Corbel, S. ; Cutini, S. ; D'Ammando, F. ; Dermer, C. D. ; De Angelis, A. ; De Palma, F. ; Digel, S. W. ; Do Couto E Silva, E. ; Drell, P. S. ; Dubois, R. ; Dumora, D. ; Escande, L. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Ferrara, E. C. ; Fuhrmann, L. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Gehrels, N. ; Germani, S. ; Giebels, B. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giommi, P. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Grove, J. E. ; Guiriec, S. ; Hadasch, D. ; Hayashida, M. ; Hays, E. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Johnson, W. N. ; Kamae, T. ; Katagiri, H. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kuss, M. ; Lande, J. ; Larsson, S. ; Latronico, L. ; Lee, S. H. ; Llena Garde, M. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lott, B. ; Lubrano, P. ; Madejski, G. M. ; Makeev, A. ; Marchili, N. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Mehault, J. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mizuno, T. ; Monte, C. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Nakamori, T. ; Nalewajko, K. / Fermi gamma-ray space telescope observations of gamma-ray outbursts from 3C 454.3 in 2009 december and 2010 april. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2010 ; Vol. 721, No. 2. pp. 1383-1396.
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    abstract = "The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 454.3 underwent an extraordinary outburst in 2009 December when it became the brightest γ -ray source in the sky for over 1 week. Its daily flux measured with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope at photon energiesE > 100 MeV reached F100 = 22 ± 1 × 10 -6 photon cm-2 s-1, representing the highest daily flux of any blazar ever recorded in high-energy γ -rays. It again became the brightest source in the sky in 2010 April, triggering a pointed-mode observation by Fermi. The correlated γ -ray temporal and spectral properties during these exceptional events are presented and discussed. The main results show flux variability over time scales less than 3 hr and very mild spectral variability with an indication of gradual hardening preceding major flares. The light curves during periods of enhanced activity in 2008 July-August and 2010 December show strong resemblance, with a flux plateau of a few days preceding the major flare. No consistent loop pattern emerged in the γ -ray spectral index versus the flux plane as would be expected in acceleration and cooling scenarios. The maximum energy of a photon from 3C 454.3 is ≈20 GeV and a minimum Doppler factor of ≈13 is derived. The γ -ray spectrum of 3C 454.3 shows a significant spectral break between ≈2 and 3 GeV that is very weakly dependent on the flux state, even when the flux changes by an order of magnitude.",
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    T1 - Fermi gamma-ray space telescope observations of gamma-ray outbursts from 3C 454.3 in 2009 december and 2010 april

    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Ajello, M.

    AU - Baldini, L.

    AU - Ballet, J.

    AU - Barbiellini, G.

    AU - Bastieri, D.

    AU - Bechtol, K.

    AU - Bellazzini, R.

    AU - Berenji, B.

    AU - Blandford, R. D.

    AU - Bonamente, E.

    AU - Borgland, A. W.

    AU - Bregeon, J.

    AU - Brigida, M.

    AU - Bruel, P.

    AU - Buehler, R.

    AU - Burnett, T. H.

    AU - Buson, S.

    AU - Caliandro, G. A.

    AU - Cameron, R. A.

    AU - Caraveo, P. A.

    AU - Carrigan, S.

    AU - Casandjian, J. M.

    AU - Cavazzuti, E.

    AU - Cecchi, C.

    AU - Çelik, Ö

    AU - Chekhtman, A.

    AU - Cheung, C. C.

    AU - Chiang, J.

    AU - Ciprini, S.

    AU - Claus, R.

    AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    AU - Corbel, S.

    AU - Cutini, S.

    AU - D'Ammando, F.

    AU - Dermer, C. D.

    AU - De Angelis, A.

    AU - De Palma, F.

    AU - Digel, S. W.

    AU - Do Couto E Silva, E.

    AU - Drell, P. S.

    AU - Dubois, R.

    AU - Dumora, D.

    AU - Escande, L.

    AU - Favuzzi, C.

    AU - Fegan, S. J.

    AU - Ferrara, E. C.

    AU - Fuhrmann, L.

    AU - Fukazawa, Y.

    AU - Fusco, P.

    AU - Gargano, F.

    AU - Gasparrini, D.

    AU - Gehrels, N.

    AU - Germani, S.

    AU - Giebels, B.

    AU - Giglietto, N.

    AU - Giommi, P.

    AU - Giordano, F.

    AU - Giroletti, M.

    AU - Glanzman, T.

    AU - Godfrey, G.

    AU - Grenier, I. A.

    AU - Grove, J. E.

    AU - Guiriec, S.

    AU - Hadasch, D.

    AU - Hayashida, M.

    AU - Hays, E.

    AU - Jóhannesson, G.

    AU - Johnson, A. S.

    AU - Johnson, W. N.

    AU - Kamae, T.

    AU - Katagiri, H.

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Knödlseder, J.

    AU - Kuss, M.

    AU - Lande, J.

    AU - Larsson, S.

    AU - Latronico, L.

    AU - Lee, S. H.

    AU - Llena Garde, M.

    AU - Longo, F.

    AU - Loparco, F.

    AU - Lott, B.

    AU - Lubrano, P.

    AU - Madejski, G. M.

    AU - Makeev, A.

    AU - Marchili, N.

    AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

    AU - McEnery, J. E.

    AU - Mehault, J.

    AU - Michelson, P. F.

    AU - Mizuno, T.

    AU - Monte, C.

    AU - Monzani, M. E.

    AU - Morselli, A.

    AU - Moskalenko, I. V.

    AU - Murgia, S.

    AU - Nakamori, T.

    AU - Nalewajko, K.

    PY - 2010/10/1

    Y1 - 2010/10/1

    N2 - The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 454.3 underwent an extraordinary outburst in 2009 December when it became the brightest γ -ray source in the sky for over 1 week. Its daily flux measured with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope at photon energiesE > 100 MeV reached F100 = 22 ± 1 × 10 -6 photon cm-2 s-1, representing the highest daily flux of any blazar ever recorded in high-energy γ -rays. It again became the brightest source in the sky in 2010 April, triggering a pointed-mode observation by Fermi. The correlated γ -ray temporal and spectral properties during these exceptional events are presented and discussed. The main results show flux variability over time scales less than 3 hr and very mild spectral variability with an indication of gradual hardening preceding major flares. The light curves during periods of enhanced activity in 2008 July-August and 2010 December show strong resemblance, with a flux plateau of a few days preceding the major flare. No consistent loop pattern emerged in the γ -ray spectral index versus the flux plane as would be expected in acceleration and cooling scenarios. The maximum energy of a photon from 3C 454.3 is ≈20 GeV and a minimum Doppler factor of ≈13 is derived. The γ -ray spectrum of 3C 454.3 shows a significant spectral break between ≈2 and 3 GeV that is very weakly dependent on the flux state, even when the flux changes by an order of magnitude.

    AB - The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 454.3 underwent an extraordinary outburst in 2009 December when it became the brightest γ -ray source in the sky for over 1 week. Its daily flux measured with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope at photon energiesE > 100 MeV reached F100 = 22 ± 1 × 10 -6 photon cm-2 s-1, representing the highest daily flux of any blazar ever recorded in high-energy γ -rays. It again became the brightest source in the sky in 2010 April, triggering a pointed-mode observation by Fermi. The correlated γ -ray temporal and spectral properties during these exceptional events are presented and discussed. The main results show flux variability over time scales less than 3 hr and very mild spectral variability with an indication of gradual hardening preceding major flares. The light curves during periods of enhanced activity in 2008 July-August and 2010 December show strong resemblance, with a flux plateau of a few days preceding the major flare. No consistent loop pattern emerged in the γ -ray spectral index versus the flux plane as would be expected in acceleration and cooling scenarios. The maximum energy of a photon from 3C 454.3 is ≈20 GeV and a minimum Doppler factor of ≈13 is derived. The γ -ray spectrum of 3C 454.3 shows a significant spectral break between ≈2 and 3 GeV that is very weakly dependent on the flux state, even when the flux changes by an order of magnitude.

    KW - Galaxies: active

    KW - Gamma rays: galaxies

    KW - Quasars: individual (3C 454.3)

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    EP - 1396

    JO - Astrophysical Journal

    JF - Astrophysical Journal

    SN - 0004-637X

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