Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe

A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M. G. Baring, D. Bastieri, B. M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, P. N. Bhat, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier & 173 others T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. S. Briggs, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, A. W. Chen, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, V. Connaughton, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S. W. Digel, B. L. Dingus, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, J. Finke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, R. C. Gilmore, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J. Granot, J. Greiner, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, R. P. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, Jun Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M. N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J. E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, J. Mehault, P. Mészáros, P. F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T. A. Porter, J. R. Primack, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L. C. Reyes, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, R. W. Romani, M. Roth, H. F W Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, J. D. Scargle, T. L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, M. S. Shaw, E. J. Siskind, P. D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, F. W. Stecker, M. S. Strickman, D. J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. B. Thayer, J. G. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. Von Kienlin, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, C. Wilson-Hodge, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, R. Yamazaki, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    115 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift-and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the?-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the "baseline" model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1082-1096
    Number of pages15
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume723
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010 Nov 10

    Fingerprint

    opacity
    rays
    universe
    gamma rays
    telescopes
    blazars
    gamma ray bursts
    wavelength
    energy
    attenuation
    light intensity
    photons
    wavelengths
    luminous intensity
    confidence
    prediction
    propagation
    predictions

    Keywords

    • Diffuse radiation
    • Dust, extinction
    • Gamma rays: general

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., ... Ziegler, M. (2010). Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe. Astrophysical Journal, 723(2), 1082-1096. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1082

    Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe. / Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Dermer, C. D.; De Angelis, A.; De Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Dingus, B. L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Gilmore, R. C.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Greiner, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, Jun; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. H.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Mehault, J.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Primack, J. R.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F W; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 723, No. 2, 10.11.2010, p. 1082-1096.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abdo, AA, Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Allafort, A, Atwood, WB, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Baring, MG, Bastieri, D, Baughman, BM, Bechtol, K, Bellazzini, R, Berenji, B, Bhat, PN, Blandford, RD, Bloom, ED, Bonamente, E, Borgland, AW, Bouvier, A, Brandt, TJ, Bregeon, J, Brez, A, Briggs, MS, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Burnett, TH, Buson, S, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Caraveo, PA, Carrigan, S, Casandjian, JM, Cavazzuti, E, Cecchi, C, Çelik, Ö, Charles, E, Chekhtman, A, Chen, AW, Cheung, CC, Chiang, J, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Connaughton, V, Conrad, J, Costamante, L, Dermer, CD, De Angelis, A, De Palma, F, Digel, SW, Dingus, BL, Do Couto E Silva, E, Drell, PS, Dubois, R, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, SJ, Finke, J, Fortin, P, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Gehrels, N, Germani, S, Giglietto, N, Gilmore, RC, Giommi, P, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Granot, J, Greiner, J, Grenier, IA, Grove, JE, Guiriec, S, Gustafsson, M, Hadasch, D, Hayashida, M, Hays, E, Horan, D, Hughes, RE, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Johnson, RP, Johnson, WN, Kamae, T, Katagiri, H, Kataoka, J, Knödlseder, J, Kocevski, D, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Latronico, L, Lee, SH, Llena Garde, M, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Makeev, A, Mazziotta, MN, McConville, W, McEnery, JE, McGlynn, S, Mehault, J, Mészáros, P, Michelson, PF, Mizuno, T, Moiseev, AA, Monte, C, Monzani, ME, Moretti, E, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Nakamori, T, Naumann-Godo, M, Nolan, PL, Norris, JP, Nuss, E, Ohno, M, Ohsugi, T, Okumura, A, Omodei, N, Orlando, E, Ormes, JF, Ozaki, M, Paneque, D, Panetta, JH, Parent, D, Pelassa, V, Pepe, M, Pesce-Rollins, M, Piron, F, Porter, TA, Primack, JR, Rainò, S, Rando, R, Razzano, M, Razzaque, S, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Reyes, LC, Ripken, J, Ritz, S, Romani, RW, Roth, M, Sadrozinski, HFW, Sanchez, D, Sander, A, Scargle, JD, Schalk, TL, Sgrò, C, Shaw, MS, Siskind, EJ, Smith, PD, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Stecker, FW, Strickman, MS, Suson, DJ, Tajima, H, Takahashi, H, Takahashi, T, Tanaka, T, Thayer, JB, Thayer, JG, Thompson, DJ, Tibaldo, L, Torres, DF, Tosti, G, Tramacere, A, Uchiyama, Y, Usher, TL, Vandenbroucke, J, Vasileiou, V, Vilchez, N, Vitale, V, Von Kienlin, A, Waite, AP, Wang, P, Wilson-Hodge, C, Winer, BL, Wood, KS, Yamazaki, R, Yang, Z, Ylinen, T & Ziegler, M 2010, 'Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 723, no. 2, pp. 1082-1096. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1082
    Abdo AA, Ackermann M, Ajello M, Allafort A, Atwood WB, Baldini L et al. Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe. Astrophysical Journal. 2010 Nov 10;723(2):1082-1096. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1082
    Abdo, A. A. ; Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Allafort, A. ; Atwood, W. B. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Baring, M. G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Baughman, B. M. ; Bechtol, K. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Berenji, B. ; Bhat, P. N. ; Blandford, R. D. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bonamente, E. ; Borgland, A. W. ; Bouvier, A. ; Brandt, T. J. ; Bregeon, J. ; Brez, A. ; Briggs, M. S. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Burnett, T. H. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Carrigan, S. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Cecchi, C. ; Çelik, Ö ; Charles, E. ; Chekhtman, A. ; Chen, A. W. ; Cheung, C. C. ; Chiang, J. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Connaughton, V. ; Conrad, J. ; Costamante, L. ; Dermer, C. D. ; De Angelis, A. ; De Palma, F. ; Digel, S. W. ; Dingus, B. L. ; Do Couto E Silva, E. ; Drell, P. S. ; Dubois, R. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Finke, J. ; Fortin, P. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Gehrels, N. ; Germani, S. ; Giglietto, N. ; Gilmore, R. C. ; Giommi, P. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Granot, J. ; Greiner, J. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Grove, J. E. ; Guiriec, S. ; Gustafsson, M. ; Hadasch, D. ; Hayashida, M. ; Hays, E. ; Horan, D. ; Hughes, R. E. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Johnson, R. P. ; Johnson, W. N. ; Kamae, T. ; Katagiri, H. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kocevski, D. ; Kuss, M. ; Lande, J. ; Latronico, L. ; Lee, S. H. ; Llena Garde, M. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lott, B. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Makeev, A. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McConville, W. ; McEnery, J. E. ; McGlynn, S. ; Mehault, J. ; Mészáros, P. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mizuno, T. ; Moiseev, A. A. ; Monte, C. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Moretti, E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Nakamori, T. ; Naumann-Godo, M. ; Nolan, P. L. ; Norris, J. P. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohno, M. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Okumura, A. ; Omodei, N. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Ozaki, M. ; Paneque, D. ; Panetta, J. H. ; Parent, D. ; Pelassa, V. ; Pepe, M. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Piron, F. ; Porter, T. A. ; Primack, J. R. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Razzaque, S. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Reyes, L. C. ; Ripken, J. ; Ritz, S. ; Romani, R. W. ; Roth, M. ; Sadrozinski, H. F W ; Sanchez, D. ; Sander, A. ; Scargle, J. D. ; Schalk, T. L. ; Sgrò, C. ; Shaw, M. S. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Smith, P. D. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Stecker, F. W. ; Strickman, M. S. ; Suson, D. J. ; Tajima, H. ; Takahashi, H. ; Takahashi, T. ; Tanaka, T. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Thayer, J. G. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Tramacere, A. ; Uchiyama, Y. ; Usher, T. L. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Vasileiou, V. ; Vilchez, N. ; Vitale, V. ; Von Kienlin, A. ; Waite, A. P. ; Wang, P. ; Wilson-Hodge, C. ; Winer, B. L. ; Wood, K. S. ; Yamazaki, R. ; Yang, Z. ; Ylinen, T. ; Ziegler, M. / Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2010 ; Vol. 723, No. 2. pp. 1082-1096.
    @article{ff9351c501fe4c2eab1125cc5ff32778,
    title = "Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe",
    abstract = "The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift-and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the?-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the {"}baseline{"} model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence.",
    keywords = "Diffuse radiation, Dust, extinction, Gamma rays: general",
    author = "Abdo, {A. A.} and M. Ackermann and M. Ajello and A. Allafort and Atwood, {W. B.} and L. Baldini and J. Ballet and G. Barbiellini and Baring, {M. G.} and D. Bastieri and Baughman, {B. M.} and K. Bechtol and R. Bellazzini and B. Berenji and Bhat, {P. N.} and Blandford, {R. D.} and Bloom, {E. D.} and E. Bonamente and Borgland, {A. W.} and A. Bouvier and Brandt, {T. J.} and J. Bregeon and A. Brez and Briggs, {M. S.} and M. Brigida and P. Bruel and R. Buehler and Burnett, {T. H.} and S. Buson and Caliandro, {G. A.} and Cameron, {R. A.} and Caraveo, {P. A.} and S. Carrigan and Casandjian, {J. M.} and E. Cavazzuti and C. Cecchi and {\"O} {\cC}elik and E. Charles and A. Chekhtman and Chen, {A. W.} and Cheung, {C. C.} and J. Chiang and S. Ciprini and R. Claus and J. Cohen-Tanugi and V. Connaughton and J. Conrad and L. Costamante and Dermer, {C. D.} and {De Angelis}, A. and {De Palma}, F. and Digel, {S. W.} and Dingus, {B. L.} and {Do Couto E Silva}, E. and Drell, {P. S.} and R. Dubois and C. Favuzzi and Fegan, {S. J.} and J. Finke and P. Fortin and Y. Fukazawa and S. Funk and P. Fusco and F. Gargano and D. Gasparrini and N. Gehrels and S. Germani and N. Giglietto and Gilmore, {R. C.} and P. Giommi and F. Giordano and M. Giroletti and T. Glanzman and G. Godfrey and J. Granot and J. Greiner and Grenier, {I. A.} and Grove, {J. E.} and S. Guiriec and M. Gustafsson and D. Hadasch and M. Hayashida and E. Hays and D. Horan and Hughes, {R. E.} and G. J{\'o}hannesson and Johnson, {A. S.} and Johnson, {R. P.} and Johnson, {W. N.} and T. Kamae and H. Katagiri and Jun Kataoka and J. Kn{\"o}dlseder and D. Kocevski and M. Kuss and J. Lande and L. Latronico and Lee, {S. H.} and {Llena Garde}, M. and F. Longo and F. Loparco and B. Lott and Lovellette, {M. N.} and P. Lubrano and A. Makeev and Mazziotta, {M. N.} and W. McConville and McEnery, {J. E.} and S. McGlynn and J. Mehault and P. M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and Michelson, {P. F.} and T. Mizuno and Moiseev, {A. A.} and C. Monte and Monzani, {M. E.} and E. Moretti and A. Morselli and Moskalenko, {I. V.} and S. Murgia and T. Nakamori and M. Naumann-Godo and Nolan, {P. L.} and Norris, {J. P.} and E. Nuss and M. Ohno and T. Ohsugi and A. Okumura and N. Omodei and E. Orlando and Ormes, {J. F.} and M. Ozaki and D. Paneque and Panetta, {J. H.} and D. Parent and V. Pelassa and M. Pepe and M. Pesce-Rollins and F. Piron and Porter, {T. A.} and Primack, {J. R.} and S. Rain{\`o} and R. Rando and M. Razzano and S. Razzaque and A. Reimer and O. Reimer and Reyes, {L. C.} and J. Ripken and S. Ritz and Romani, {R. W.} and M. Roth and Sadrozinski, {H. F W} and D. Sanchez and A. Sander and Scargle, {J. D.} and Schalk, {T. L.} and C. Sgr{\`o} and Shaw, {M. S.} and Siskind, {E. J.} and Smith, {P. D.} and G. Spandre and P. Spinelli and Stecker, {F. W.} and Strickman, {M. S.} and Suson, {D. J.} and H. Tajima and H. Takahashi and T. Takahashi and T. Tanaka and Thayer, {J. B.} and Thayer, {J. G.} and Thompson, {D. J.} and L. Tibaldo and Torres, {D. F.} and G. Tosti and A. Tramacere and Y. Uchiyama and Usher, {T. L.} and J. Vandenbroucke and V. Vasileiou and N. Vilchez and V. Vitale and {Von Kienlin}, A. and Waite, {A. P.} and P. Wang and C. Wilson-Hodge and Winer, {B. L.} and Wood, {K. S.} and R. Yamazaki and Z. Yang and T. Ylinen and M. Ziegler",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe

    AU - Abdo, A. A.

    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Ajello, M.

    AU - Allafort, A.

    AU - Atwood, W. B.

    AU - Baldini, L.

    AU - Ballet, J.

    AU - Barbiellini, G.

    AU - Baring, M. G.

    AU - Bastieri, D.

    AU - Baughman, B. M.

    AU - Bechtol, K.

    AU - Bellazzini, R.

    AU - Berenji, B.

    AU - Bhat, P. N.

    AU - Blandford, R. D.

    AU - Bloom, E. D.

    AU - Bonamente, E.

    AU - Borgland, A. W.

    AU - Bouvier, A.

    AU - Brandt, T. J.

    AU - Bregeon, J.

    AU - Brez, A.

    AU - Briggs, M. S.

    AU - Brigida, M.

    AU - Bruel, P.

    AU - Buehler, R.

    AU - Burnett, T. H.

    AU - Buson, S.

    AU - Caliandro, G. A.

    AU - Cameron, R. A.

    AU - Caraveo, P. A.

    AU - Carrigan, S.

    AU - Casandjian, J. M.

    AU - Cavazzuti, E.

    AU - Cecchi, C.

    AU - Çelik, Ö

    AU - Charles, E.

    AU - Chekhtman, A.

    AU - Chen, A. W.

    AU - Cheung, C. C.

    AU - Chiang, J.

    AU - Ciprini, S.

    AU - Claus, R.

    AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    AU - Connaughton, V.

    AU - Conrad, J.

    AU - Costamante, L.

    AU - Dermer, C. D.

    AU - De Angelis, A.

    AU - De Palma, F.

    AU - Digel, S. W.

    AU - Dingus, B. L.

    AU - Do Couto E Silva, E.

    AU - Drell, P. S.

    AU - Dubois, R.

    AU - Favuzzi, C.

    AU - Fegan, S. J.

    AU - Finke, J.

    AU - Fortin, P.

    AU - Fukazawa, Y.

    AU - Funk, S.

    AU - Fusco, P.

    AU - Gargano, F.

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    PY - 2010/11/10

    Y1 - 2010/11/10

    N2 - The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift-and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the?-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the "baseline" model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence.

    AB - The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift-and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the?-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the "baseline" model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence.

    KW - Diffuse radiation

    KW - Dust, extinction

    KW - Gamma rays: general

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78650101378&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78650101378&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1082

    DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1082

    M3 - Article

    VL - 723

    SP - 1082

    EP - 1096

    JO - Astrophysical Journal

    JF - Astrophysical Journal

    SN - 0004-637X

    IS - 2

    ER -