The first fossil record of Duboisia (Boselaphini, Bovidae) from Thailand confirms that this genus is no longer endemic to Java, Indonesia. The new fossil material is a calvarium with horn cores (older than the Middle Pleistocene) collected from a sandpit at Tha Chang, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, north-eastern Thailand. The present specimen is provisionally allocated to a species of Duboisia aff. D. santeng, which has weaker precornual ridges and anterior keels on the horn cores than D. santeng from Early and Middle Pleistocene deposits of Java, but these species share basic characteristics of horn cores as follows: the lower half inclined backwards; the upper half curved upwards; cross section rounded triangular, antero-posteriorly compressed, and with medial and lateral keels. Morphological similarities between D. aff. santeng and D. santeng support a strong faunal interchange between continental South East Asia and Java before the Middle Pleistocene, and suggest that the genus Duboisia diverged from the other genera of Boselaphini in the "Siva-Malayan" region.
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