First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

R. U. Abbasi, M. Abe, M. Abou Bakr Othman, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Anderson, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, D. Besson, S. A. Blake, M. Byrne, R. Cady, M. J. Chae, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, M. Chikawa, W. R. Cho, B. Farhang-BoroujenyT. Fujii, M. Fukushima, W. H. Gillman, T. Goto, W. Hanlon, J. C. Hanson, Y. Hayashi, N. Hayashida, K. Hibino, K. Honda, D. Ikeda, N. Inoue, T. Ishii, R. Ishimori, H. Ito, D. Ivanov, C. Jayanthmurthy, C. C H Jui, K. Kadota, F. Kakimoto, O. Kalashev, K. Kasahara, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, S. Kawana, K. Kawata, E. Kido, H. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Kitamura, Y. Kitamura, S. Kunwar, V. Kuzmin, Y. J. Kwon, J. Lan, S. I. Lim, J. P. Lundquist, K. Machida, K. Martens, T. Matsuda, T. Matsuyama, J. N. Matthews, M. Minamino, K. Mukai, I. Myers, K. Nagasawa, S. Nagataki, T. Nakamura, T. Nonaka, A. Nozato, S. Ogio, J. Ogura, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, K. Oki, T. Okuda, M. Ono, A. Oshima, Shunsuke Ozawa, I. H. Park, S. Prohira, M. S. Pshirkov, A. Rezazadeh-Reyhani, D. C. Rodriguez, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, H. Sagawa, N. Sakurai, A. L. Sampson, L. M. Scott, D. Schurig, P. D. Shah, F. Shibata, T. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, B. K. Shin, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, R. W. Springer, B. T. Stokes, S. R. Stratton, T. A. Stroman, T. Suzawa, H. Takai, M. Takamura, M. Takeda, R. Takeishi, A. Taketa, M. Takita, Y. Tameda, H. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, S. B. Thomas, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, I. Tkachev, H. Tokuno, T. Tomida, S. Troitsky, Y. Tsunesada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Uchihori, S. Udo, F. Urban, G. Vasiloff, S. Venkatesh, T. Wong, R. Yamane, H. Yamaoka, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, K. Yashiro, Y. Yoneda, S. Yoshida, H. Yoshii, R. Zollinger, Z. Zundel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 µs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/µs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Volume87
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1

Fingerprint

radar cross sections
cosmic ray showers
cosmic rays
telescopes
radar
detectors
fluorescence
scintillation
radar detection
radar signatures
radar echoes
matched filters
radio waves
high gain
transmitters
field of view
echoes
waveforms
templates
antennas

Keywords

  • Cosmic ray
  • Digital signal processing
  • Radar
  • Radar cross-section

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Abbasi, R. U., Abe, M., Abou Bakr Othman, M., Abu-Zayyad, T., Allen, M., Anderson, R., ... Zundel, Z. (2017). First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers. Astroparticle Physics, 87, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2016.11.006

First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers. / Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Besson, D.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gillman, W. H.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J. C.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Jui, C. C H; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kunwar, S.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Park, I. H.; Prohira, S.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Schurig, D.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takai, H.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Venkatesh, S.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 87, 01.01.2017, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abbasi, RU, Abe, M, Abou Bakr Othman, M, Abu-Zayyad, T, Allen, M, Anderson, R, Azuma, R, Barcikowski, E, Belz, JW, Bergman, DR, Besson, D, Blake, SA, Byrne, M, Cady, R, Chae, MJ, Cheon, BG, Chiba, J, Chikawa, M, Cho, WR, Farhang-Boroujeny, B, Fujii, T, Fukushima, M, Gillman, WH, Goto, T, Hanlon, W, Hanson, JC, Hayashi, Y, Hayashida, N, Hibino, K, Honda, K, Ikeda, D, Inoue, N, Ishii, T, Ishimori, R, Ito, H, Ivanov, D, Jayanthmurthy, C, Jui, CCH, Kadota, K, Kakimoto, F, Kalashev, O, Kasahara, K, Kawai, H, Kawakami, S, Kawana, S, Kawata, K, Kido, E, Kim, HB, Kim, JH, Kim, JH, Kitamura, S, Kitamura, Y, Kunwar, S, Kuzmin, V, Kwon, YJ, Lan, J, Lim, SI, Lundquist, JP, Machida, K, Martens, K, Matsuda, T, Matsuyama, T, Matthews, JN, Minamino, M, Mukai, K, Myers, I, Nagasawa, K, Nagataki, S, Nakamura, T, Nonaka, T, Nozato, A, Ogio, S, Ogura, J, Ohnishi, M, Ohoka, H, Oki, K, Okuda, T, Ono, M, Oshima, A, Ozawa, S, Park, IH, Prohira, S, Pshirkov, MS, Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A, Rodriguez, DC, Rubtsov, G, Ryu, D, Sagawa, H, Sakurai, N, Sampson, AL, Scott, LM, Schurig, D, Shah, PD, Shibata, F, Shibata, T, Shimodaira, H, Shin, BK, Smith, JD, Sokolsky, P, Springer, RW, Stokes, BT, Stratton, SR, Stroman, TA, Suzawa, T, Takai, H, Takamura, M, Takeda, M, Takeishi, R, Taketa, A, Takita, M, Tameda, Y, Tanaka, H, Tanaka, K, Tanaka, M, Thomas, SB, Thomson, GB, Tinyakov, P, Tkachev, I, Tokuno, H, Tomida, T, Troitsky, S, Tsunesada, Y, Tsutsumi, K, Uchihori, Y, Udo, S, Urban, F, Vasiloff, G, Venkatesh, S, Wong, T, Yamane, R, Yamaoka, H, Yamazaki, K, Yang, J, Yashiro, K, Yoneda, Y, Yoshida, S, Yoshii, H, Zollinger, R & Zundel, Z 2017, 'First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 87, pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2016.11.006
Abbasi, R. U. ; Abe, M. ; Abou Bakr Othman, M. ; Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Allen, M. ; Anderson, R. ; Azuma, R. ; Barcikowski, E. ; Belz, J. W. ; Bergman, D. R. ; Besson, D. ; Blake, S. A. ; Byrne, M. ; Cady, R. ; Chae, M. J. ; Cheon, B. G. ; Chiba, J. ; Chikawa, M. ; Cho, W. R. ; Farhang-Boroujeny, B. ; Fujii, T. ; Fukushima, M. ; Gillman, W. H. ; Goto, T. ; Hanlon, W. ; Hanson, J. C. ; Hayashi, Y. ; Hayashida, N. ; Hibino, K. ; Honda, K. ; Ikeda, D. ; Inoue, N. ; Ishii, T. ; Ishimori, R. ; Ito, H. ; Ivanov, D. ; Jayanthmurthy, C. ; Jui, C. C H ; Kadota, K. ; Kakimoto, F. ; Kalashev, O. ; Kasahara, K. ; Kawai, H. ; Kawakami, S. ; Kawana, S. ; Kawata, K. ; Kido, E. ; Kim, H. B. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kitamura, S. ; Kitamura, Y. ; Kunwar, S. ; Kuzmin, V. ; Kwon, Y. J. ; Lan, J. ; Lim, S. I. ; Lundquist, J. P. ; Machida, K. ; Martens, K. ; Matsuda, T. ; Matsuyama, T. ; Matthews, J. N. ; Minamino, M. ; Mukai, K. ; Myers, I. ; Nagasawa, K. ; Nagataki, S. ; Nakamura, T. ; Nonaka, T. ; Nozato, A. ; Ogio, S. ; Ogura, J. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohoka, H. ; Oki, K. ; Okuda, T. ; Ono, M. ; Oshima, A. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Park, I. H. ; Prohira, S. ; Pshirkov, M. S. ; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A. ; Rodriguez, D. C. ; Rubtsov, G. ; Ryu, D. ; Sagawa, H. ; Sakurai, N. ; Sampson, A. L. ; Scott, L. M. ; Schurig, D. ; Shah, P. D. ; Shibata, F. ; Shibata, T. ; Shimodaira, H. ; Shin, B. K. ; Smith, J. D. ; Sokolsky, P. ; Springer, R. W. ; Stokes, B. T. ; Stratton, S. R. ; Stroman, T. A. ; Suzawa, T. ; Takai, H. ; Takamura, M. ; Takeda, M. ; Takeishi, R. ; Taketa, A. ; Takita, M. ; Tameda, Y. ; Tanaka, H. ; Tanaka, K. ; Tanaka, M. ; Thomas, S. B. ; Thomson, G. B. ; Tinyakov, P. ; Tkachev, I. ; Tokuno, H. ; Tomida, T. ; Troitsky, S. ; Tsunesada, Y. ; Tsutsumi, K. ; Uchihori, Y. ; Udo, S. ; Urban, F. ; Vasiloff, G. ; Venkatesh, S. ; Wong, T. ; Yamane, R. ; Yamaoka, H. ; Yamazaki, K. ; Yang, J. ; Yashiro, K. ; Yoneda, Y. ; Yoshida, S. ; Yoshii, H. ; Zollinger, R. ; Zundel, Z. / First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2017 ; Vol. 87. pp. 1-17.
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title = "First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers",
abstract = "TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 µs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/µs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

AU - Abbasi, R. U.

AU - Abe, M.

AU - Abou Bakr Othman, M.

AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

AU - Allen, M.

AU - Anderson, R.

AU - Azuma, R.

AU - Barcikowski, E.

AU - Belz, J. W.

AU - Bergman, D. R.

AU - Besson, D.

AU - Blake, S. A.

AU - Byrne, M.

AU - Cady, R.

AU - Chae, M. J.

AU - Cheon, B. G.

AU - Chiba, J.

AU - Chikawa, M.

AU - Cho, W. R.

AU - Farhang-Boroujeny, B.

AU - Fujii, T.

AU - Fukushima, M.

AU - Gillman, W. H.

AU - Goto, T.

AU - Hanlon, W.

AU - Hanson, J. C.

AU - Hayashi, Y.

AU - Hayashida, N.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Honda, K.

AU - Ikeda, D.

AU - Inoue, N.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Ishimori, R.

AU - Ito, H.

AU - Ivanov, D.

AU - Jayanthmurthy, C.

AU - Jui, C. C H

AU - Kadota, K.

AU - Kakimoto, F.

AU - Kalashev, O.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Kawai, H.

AU - Kawakami, S.

AU - Kawana, S.

AU - Kawata, K.

AU - Kido, E.

AU - Kim, H. B.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kitamura, S.

AU - Kitamura, Y.

AU - Kunwar, S.

AU - Kuzmin, V.

AU - Kwon, Y. J.

AU - Lan, J.

AU - Lim, S. I.

AU - Lundquist, J. P.

AU - Machida, K.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Matsuda, T.

AU - Matsuyama, T.

AU - Matthews, J. N.

AU - Minamino, M.

AU - Mukai, K.

AU - Myers, I.

AU - Nagasawa, K.

AU - Nagataki, S.

AU - Nakamura, T.

AU - Nonaka, T.

AU - Nozato, A.

AU - Ogio, S.

AU - Ogura, J.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohoka, H.

AU - Oki, K.

AU - Okuda, T.

AU - Ono, M.

AU - Oshima, A.

AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

AU - Park, I. H.

AU - Prohira, S.

AU - Pshirkov, M. S.

AU - Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.

AU - Rodriguez, D. C.

AU - Rubtsov, G.

AU - Ryu, D.

AU - Sagawa, H.

AU - Sakurai, N.

AU - Sampson, A. L.

AU - Scott, L. M.

AU - Schurig, D.

AU - Shah, P. D.

AU - Shibata, F.

AU - Shibata, T.

AU - Shimodaira, H.

AU - Shin, B. K.

AU - Smith, J. D.

AU - Sokolsky, P.

AU - Springer, R. W.

AU - Stokes, B. T.

AU - Stratton, S. R.

AU - Stroman, T. A.

AU - Suzawa, T.

AU - Takai, H.

AU - Takamura, M.

AU - Takeda, M.

AU - Takeishi, R.

AU - Taketa, A.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Tameda, Y.

AU - Tanaka, H.

AU - Tanaka, K.

AU - Tanaka, M.

AU - Thomas, S. B.

AU - Thomson, G. B.

AU - Tinyakov, P.

AU - Tkachev, I.

AU - Tokuno, H.

AU - Tomida, T.

AU - Troitsky, S.

AU - Tsunesada, Y.

AU - Tsutsumi, K.

AU - Uchihori, Y.

AU - Udo, S.

AU - Urban, F.

AU - Vasiloff, G.

AU - Venkatesh, S.

AU - Wong, T.

AU - Yamane, R.

AU - Yamaoka, H.

AU - Yamazaki, K.

AU - Yang, J.

AU - Yashiro, K.

AU - Yoneda, Y.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Yoshii, H.

AU - Zollinger, R.

AU - Zundel, Z.

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 µs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/µs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.

AB - TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 µs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/µs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.

KW - Cosmic ray

KW - Digital signal processing

KW - Radar

KW - Radar cross-section

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JO - Astroparticle Physics

JF - Astroparticle Physics

SN - 0927-6505

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