FOREVER22: Galaxy formation in protocluster regions

Hidenobu Yajima, Makito Abe, Sadegh Khochfar, Kentaro Nagamine, Akio K. Inoue, Tadayuki Kodama, Shohei Arata, Claudio Dalla-Vecchia, Hajime Fukushima, Takuya Hashimoto, Nobunari Kashikawa, Mariko Kubo, Yuexing Li, Yuichi Matsuda, Ken Mawatari, Masami Ouchi, Hideki Umehata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We present results from a new cosmological hydrodynamics simulation campaign of protocluster (PC) regions, FOREVER22: FORmation and EVolution of galaxies in Extremely-overdense Regions motivated by SSA22. The simulations cover a wide range of cosmological scales using three different zoom set-ups in a parent volume of (714.2 Mpc)3: PCR (Proto-Cluster Region; V = (28.6 Mpc)3 and SPH particle mass, mSPH = 4.1 × 106 Mʘ), BCG (Brightest proto-Cluster Galaxy; V ∼ (3 Mpc)3 and mSPH = 5.0×105 Mʘ ), and First (V ∼ (0.4 Mpc)3 and mSPH = 7.9×103 Mʘ) runs, that allow to focus on different aspects of galaxy formation. In the PCR runs, we follow 10 PCs, each harbouring 1 - 4 SMBHs with MBH > 109 Mʘ. One of the PC cores shows a spatially close arrangement of seven starburst galaxies with SFR & 100 Mʘ yr1 each, that are dust-obscured and would appear as submillimeter galaxies with flux & 1 mJy at 1.1 mm in observations. The BCG runs show that the total SFRs of haloes hosting BCGs are affected by AGN feedback, but exceed 1000 Mʘ yr1 at z . 6. The First runs resolve mini-haloes hosting population (Pop) III stars and we show that, in PC regions, the dominant stellar population changes from Pop III to Pop II at z & 20, and the first galaxies with SFR & 18 Mʘ yr1 form at z ∼ 10. These can be prime targets for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. Our simulations successfully reproduce the global star formation activities in observed PCs and suggest that PCs can kickstart cosmic reionization.

Original languageEnglish
JournalUnknown Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Nov 23

Keywords

  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: formation
  • Galaxies: high-redshift
  • Radiative transfer
  • Stars: Population III

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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