Formulation for the zero mode of a Bose-Einstein condensate beyond the Bogoliubov approximation

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    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The unperturbed Hamiltonian for the Bose-Einstein condensate, which includes not only the first and second powers of the zero mode operators but also the higher ones, is proposed to determine a unique and stationary vacuum at zero temperature. From the standpoint of quantum field theory, it is done in a consistent manner that the canonical commutation relation of the field operator is kept. In this formulation, the condensate phase does not diffuse and is robust against the quantum fluctuation of the zero mode. The standard deviation for the phase operator depends on the condensed atom number with the exponent of -1/3, which is universal for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number013613
    JournalPhysical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
    Volume89
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 16

    Fingerprint

    Bose-Einstein condensates
    formulations
    operators
    approximation
    commutation
    condensates
    standard deviation
    exponents
    vacuum
    atoms
    temperature

    Keywords

    • 03.75.Hh
    • 03.75.Nt
    • 67.85.-d

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

    Cite this

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    AB - The unperturbed Hamiltonian for the Bose-Einstein condensate, which includes not only the first and second powers of the zero mode operators but also the higher ones, is proposed to determine a unique and stationary vacuum at zero temperature. From the standpoint of quantum field theory, it is done in a consistent manner that the canonical commutation relation of the field operator is kept. In this formulation, the condensate phase does not diffuse and is robust against the quantum fluctuation of the zero mode. The standard deviation for the phase operator depends on the condensed atom number with the exponent of -1/3, which is universal for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems.

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