Fundamental investigations of the free radical copolymerization and terpolymerization of maleic anhydride, norbornene, and norbornene tert-butyl ester: In-situ mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis

A. J. Pasquale, R. D. Allen, Timothy Edward Long

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Various synthetic factors that affect the molecular weight, yield, and composition of maleic anhydride (MAH), norbornene (Nb), and tert-butyl 5-norbornene-2-carboxylate (Nb-TBE) terpolymers were investigated. Real-time monitoring via in-situ FTIR spectroscopy of co- and terpolymerizations of MAH with Nb and Nb-TBE was utilized to evaluate the observed rates of varying Nb/Nb-TBE monomer feed ratios. Pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis indicated that the observed rate of reaction (kobs) was a strong function of the Nb/Nb-TBE ratio with a maximum of 6.68 × 10-5 s-1 for a 50/0/50 Nb/Nb-TBE/MAH monomer ratio and a minimum of 1.13 × 10-5 s-1 for a 0/50/50 Nb/Nb-TBE/MAH ratio. In addition, polymer yields were also observed to be a function of the Nb/Nb-TBE ratio and also decreased with increasing Nb-TBE. Sampling of an Nb/Nb-TBE/MAH (25/25/50 mole ratio) terpolymerization and subsequent analysis using 1H NMR indicated that the relative rate of Nb incorporation is approximately 1.7 times faster than Nb-TBE incorporation. Also, the observed rate constant of 4.42 × 10-5 s-1 calculated using 1H NMR agreed favorably with the kobs determined via in-situ FTIR (3.83 × 10-5 s-1). Terpolymerizations in excess Nb-TBE and in the absence of solvent resulted in relatively high molecular weight materials (Mn > 20 000) and provided a potential avenue for control of the Nb/Nb-TBE incorporation into the resulting materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8064-8071
Number of pages8
JournalMacromolecules
Volume34
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Nov 6
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Terpolymerization
Maleic Anhydrides
Spectroscopic analysis
Maleic anhydride
Binding energy
Free radicals
Copolymerization
Free Radicals
Esters
Infrared radiation
2-norbornene
Monomers
Molecular weight
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Terpolymers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Fundamental investigations of the free radical copolymerization and terpolymerization of maleic anhydride, norbornene, and norbornene tert-butyl ester : In-situ mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis. / Pasquale, A. J.; Allen, R. D.; Long, Timothy Edward.

In: Macromolecules, Vol. 34, No. 23, 06.11.2001, p. 8064-8071.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Various synthetic factors that affect the molecular weight, yield, and composition of maleic anhydride (MAH), norbornene (Nb), and tert-butyl 5-norbornene-2-carboxylate (Nb-TBE) terpolymers were investigated. Real-time monitoring via in-situ FTIR spectroscopy of co- and terpolymerizations of MAH with Nb and Nb-TBE was utilized to evaluate the observed rates of varying Nb/Nb-TBE monomer feed ratios. Pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis indicated that the observed rate of reaction (kobs) was a strong function of the Nb/Nb-TBE ratio with a maximum of 6.68 × 10-5 s-1 for a 50/0/50 Nb/Nb-TBE/MAH monomer ratio and a minimum of 1.13 × 10-5 s-1 for a 0/50/50 Nb/Nb-TBE/MAH ratio. In addition, polymer yields were also observed to be a function of the Nb/Nb-TBE ratio and also decreased with increasing Nb-TBE. Sampling of an Nb/Nb-TBE/MAH (25/25/50 mole ratio) terpolymerization and subsequent analysis using 1H NMR indicated that the relative rate of Nb incorporation is approximately 1.7 times faster than Nb-TBE incorporation. Also, the observed rate constant of 4.42 × 10-5 s-1 calculated using 1H NMR agreed favorably with the kobs determined via in-situ FTIR (3.83 × 10-5 s-1). Terpolymerizations in excess Nb-TBE and in the absence of solvent resulted in relatively high molecular weight materials (Mn > 20 000) and provided a potential avenue for control of the Nb/Nb-TBE incorporation into the resulting materials.",
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