Gamma Ray Showers Observed at Ground Level in Coincidence With Downward Lightning Leaders

R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, M. Byrne, R. Cady, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, M. Chikawa, T. Fujii, M. Fukushima, G. Furlich, T. Goto, W. Hanlon, Y. Hayashi, N. Hayashida, K. Hibino & 104 others K. Honda, D. Ikeda, N. Inoue, T. Ishii, H. Ito, D. Ivanov, S. Jeong, C. C.H. Jui, K. Kadota, F. Kakimoto, O. Kalashev, K. Kasahara, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, K. Kawata, E. Kido, H. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. S. Kishigami, P. R. Krehbiel, V. Kuzmin, Y. J. Kwon, J. Lan, R. LeVon, J. P. Lundquist, K. Machida, K. Martens, T. Matuyama, J. N. Matthews, M. Minamino, K. Mukai, I. Myers, S. Nagataki, R. Nakamura, T. Nakamura, T. Nonaka, S. Ogio, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, K. Oki, T. Okuda, M. Ono, R. Onogi, A. Oshima, Shunsuke Ozawa, I. H. Park, M. S. Pshirkov, J. Remington, W. Rison, D. Rodeheffer, D. C. Rodriguez, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, H. Sagawa, K. Saito, N. Sakaki, N. Sakurai, T. Seki, K. Sekino, P. D. Shah, F. Shibata, T. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, B. K. Shin, H. S. Shin, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, R. W. Springer, B. T. Stokes, T. A. Stroman, H. Takai, M. Takeda, R. Takeishi, A. Taketa, M. Takita, Y. Tameda, H. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, R. J. Thomas, S. B. Thomas, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, I. Tkachev, H. Tokuno, T. Tomida, S. Troitsky, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Udo, F. Urban, G. Vasiloff, T. Wong, M. Yamamoto, R. Yamane, H. Yamaoka, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, K. Yashiro, Y. Yoneda, S. Yoshida, H. Yoshii, Z. Zundel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bursts of gamma ray showers have been observed in coincidence with downward propagating negative leaders in lightning flashes by the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD). The TASD is a 700-km2 cosmic ray observatory located in southwestern Utah, USA. In data collected between 2014 and 2016, correlated observations showing the structure and temporal development of three shower-producing flashes were obtained with a 3-D lightning mapping array, and electric field change measurements were obtained for an additional seven flashes, in both cases colocated with the TASD. National Lightning Detection Network information was also used throughout. The showers arrived in a sequence of 2–5 short-duration (≤10 μs) bursts over time intervals of several hundred microseconds and originated at an altitude of ≃3–5 km above ground level during the first 1–2 ms of downward negative leader breakdown at the beginning of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. The shower footprints, associated waveforms and the effect of atmospheric propagation indicate that the showers consist primarily of downward-beamed gamma radiation. This has been supported by GEANT simulation studies, which indicate primary source fluxes of ≃1012–1014 photons for 16° half-angle beams. We conclude that the showers are terrestrial gamma ray flashes, similar to those observed by satellites, but that the ground-based observations are more representative of the temporal source activity and are also more sensitive than satellite observations, which detect only the most powerful terrestrial gamma ray flashes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6864-6879
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Volume123
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul 16

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lightning
Lightning
showers
Gamma rays
gamma radiation
flash
Telescopes
gamma rays
detectors
Detectors
Satellites
telescopes
information networks
cloud to ground lightning
Cosmic rays
bursts
Observatories
electric field
footprint
cosmic ray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Abbasi, R. U., Abu-Zayyad, T., Allen, M., Barcikowski, E., Belz, J. W., Bergman, D. R., ... Zundel, Z. (2018). Gamma Ray Showers Observed at Ground Level in Coincidence With Downward Lightning Leaders. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(13), 6864-6879. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JD027931

Gamma Ray Showers Observed at Ground Level in Coincidence With Downward Lightning Leaders. / Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Furlich, G.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jeong, S.; Jui, C. C.H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kishigami, S. S.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; LeVon, R.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, R.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Onogi, R.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Remington, J.; Rison, W.; Rodeheffer, D.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, K.; Sakaki, N.; Sakurai, N.; Seki, T.; Sekino, K.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stroman, T. A.; Takai, H.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, R. J.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zundel, Z.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 123, No. 13, 16.07.2018, p. 6864-6879.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abbasi, RU, Abu-Zayyad, T, Allen, M, Barcikowski, E, Belz, JW, Bergman, DR, Blake, SA, Byrne, M, Cady, R, Cheon, BG, Chiba, J, Chikawa, M, Fujii, T, Fukushima, M, Furlich, G, Goto, T, Hanlon, W, Hayashi, Y, Hayashida, N, Hibino, K, Honda, K, Ikeda, D, Inoue, N, Ishii, T, Ito, H, Ivanov, D, Jeong, S, Jui, CCH, Kadota, K, Kakimoto, F, Kalashev, O, Kasahara, K, Kawai, H, Kawakami, S, Kawata, K, Kido, E, Kim, HB, Kim, JH, Kim, JH, Kishigami, SS, Krehbiel, PR, Kuzmin, V, Kwon, YJ, Lan, J, LeVon, R, Lundquist, JP, Machida, K, Martens, K, Matuyama, T, Matthews, JN, Minamino, M, Mukai, K, Myers, I, Nagataki, S, Nakamura, R, Nakamura, T, Nonaka, T, Ogio, S, Ohnishi, M, Ohoka, H, Oki, K, Okuda, T, Ono, M, Onogi, R, Oshima, A, Ozawa, S, Park, IH, Pshirkov, MS, Remington, J, Rison, W, Rodeheffer, D, Rodriguez, DC, Rubtsov, G, Ryu, D, Sagawa, H, Saito, K, Sakaki, N, Sakurai, N, Seki, T, Sekino, K, Shah, PD, Shibata, F, Shibata, T, Shimodaira, H, Shin, BK, Shin, HS, Smith, JD, Sokolsky, P, Springer, RW, Stokes, BT, Stroman, TA, Takai, H, Takeda, M, Takeishi, R, Taketa, A, Takita, M, Tameda, Y, Tanaka, H, Tanaka, K, Tanaka, M, Thomas, RJ, Thomas, SB, Thomson, GB, Tinyakov, P, Tkachev, I, Tokuno, H, Tomida, T, Troitsky, S, Tsunesada, Y, Uchihori, Y, Udo, S, Urban, F, Vasiloff, G, Wong, T, Yamamoto, M, Yamane, R, Yamaoka, H, Yamazaki, K, Yang, J, Yashiro, K, Yoneda, Y, Yoshida, S, Yoshii, H & Zundel, Z 2018, 'Gamma Ray Showers Observed at Ground Level in Coincidence With Downward Lightning Leaders', Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 123, no. 13, pp. 6864-6879. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JD027931
Abbasi, R. U. ; Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Allen, M. ; Barcikowski, E. ; Belz, J. W. ; Bergman, D. R. ; Blake, S. A. ; Byrne, M. ; Cady, R. ; Cheon, B. G. ; Chiba, J. ; Chikawa, M. ; Fujii, T. ; Fukushima, M. ; Furlich, G. ; Goto, T. ; Hanlon, W. ; Hayashi, Y. ; Hayashida, N. ; Hibino, K. ; Honda, K. ; Ikeda, D. ; Inoue, N. ; Ishii, T. ; Ito, H. ; Ivanov, D. ; Jeong, S. ; Jui, C. C.H. ; Kadota, K. ; Kakimoto, F. ; Kalashev, O. ; Kasahara, K. ; Kawai, H. ; Kawakami, S. ; Kawata, K. ; Kido, E. ; Kim, H. B. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kishigami, S. S. ; Krehbiel, P. R. ; Kuzmin, V. ; Kwon, Y. J. ; Lan, J. ; LeVon, R. ; Lundquist, J. P. ; Machida, K. ; Martens, K. ; Matuyama, T. ; Matthews, J. N. ; Minamino, M. ; Mukai, K. ; Myers, I. ; Nagataki, S. ; Nakamura, R. ; Nakamura, T. ; Nonaka, T. ; Ogio, S. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohoka, H. ; Oki, K. ; Okuda, T. ; Ono, M. ; Onogi, R. ; Oshima, A. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Park, I. H. ; Pshirkov, M. S. ; Remington, J. ; Rison, W. ; Rodeheffer, D. ; Rodriguez, D. C. ; Rubtsov, G. ; Ryu, D. ; Sagawa, H. ; Saito, K. ; Sakaki, N. ; Sakurai, N. ; Seki, T. ; Sekino, K. ; Shah, P. D. ; Shibata, F. ; Shibata, T. ; Shimodaira, H. ; Shin, B. K. ; Shin, H. S. ; Smith, J. D. ; Sokolsky, P. ; Springer, R. W. ; Stokes, B. T. ; Stroman, T. A. ; Takai, H. ; Takeda, M. ; Takeishi, R. ; Taketa, A. ; Takita, M. ; Tameda, Y. ; Tanaka, H. ; Tanaka, K. ; Tanaka, M. ; Thomas, R. J. ; Thomas, S. B. ; Thomson, G. B. ; Tinyakov, P. ; Tkachev, I. ; Tokuno, H. ; Tomida, T. ; Troitsky, S. ; Tsunesada, Y. ; Uchihori, Y. ; Udo, S. ; Urban, F. ; Vasiloff, G. ; Wong, T. ; Yamamoto, M. ; Yamane, R. ; Yamaoka, H. ; Yamazaki, K. ; Yang, J. ; Yashiro, K. ; Yoneda, Y. ; Yoshida, S. ; Yoshii, H. ; Zundel, Z. / Gamma Ray Showers Observed at Ground Level in Coincidence With Downward Lightning Leaders. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 2018 ; Vol. 123, No. 13. pp. 6864-6879.
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Gamma Ray Showers Observed at Ground Level in Coincidence With Downward Lightning Leaders

AU - Abbasi, R. U.

AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

AU - Allen, M.

AU - Barcikowski, E.

AU - Belz, J. W.

AU - Bergman, D. R.

AU - Blake, S. A.

AU - Byrne, M.

AU - Cady, R.

AU - Cheon, B. G.

AU - Chiba, J.

AU - Chikawa, M.

AU - Fujii, T.

AU - Fukushima, M.

AU - Furlich, G.

AU - Goto, T.

AU - Hanlon, W.

AU - Hayashi, Y.

AU - Hayashida, N.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Honda, K.

AU - Ikeda, D.

AU - Inoue, N.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Ito, H.

AU - Ivanov, D.

AU - Jeong, S.

AU - Jui, C. C.H.

AU - Kadota, K.

AU - Kakimoto, F.

AU - Kalashev, O.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Kawai, H.

AU - Kawakami, S.

AU - Kawata, K.

AU - Kido, E.

AU - Kim, H. B.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kishigami, S. S.

AU - Krehbiel, P. R.

AU - Kuzmin, V.

AU - Kwon, Y. J.

AU - Lan, J.

AU - LeVon, R.

AU - Lundquist, J. P.

AU - Machida, K.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Matuyama, T.

AU - Matthews, J. N.

AU - Minamino, M.

AU - Mukai, K.

AU - Myers, I.

AU - Nagataki, S.

AU - Nakamura, R.

AU - Nakamura, T.

AU - Nonaka, T.

AU - Ogio, S.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohoka, H.

AU - Oki, K.

AU - Okuda, T.

AU - Ono, M.

AU - Onogi, R.

AU - Oshima, A.

AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

AU - Park, I. H.

AU - Pshirkov, M. S.

AU - Remington, J.

AU - Rison, W.

AU - Rodeheffer, D.

AU - Rodriguez, D. C.

AU - Rubtsov, G.

AU - Ryu, D.

AU - Sagawa, H.

AU - Saito, K.

AU - Sakaki, N.

AU - Sakurai, N.

AU - Seki, T.

AU - Sekino, K.

AU - Shah, P. D.

AU - Shibata, F.

AU - Shibata, T.

AU - Shimodaira, H.

AU - Shin, B. K.

AU - Shin, H. S.

AU - Smith, J. D.

AU - Sokolsky, P.

AU - Springer, R. W.

AU - Stokes, B. T.

AU - Stroman, T. A.

AU - Takai, H.

AU - Takeda, M.

AU - Takeishi, R.

AU - Taketa, A.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Tameda, Y.

AU - Tanaka, H.

AU - Tanaka, K.

AU - Tanaka, M.

AU - Thomas, R. J.

AU - Thomas, S. B.

AU - Thomson, G. B.

AU - Tinyakov, P.

AU - Tkachev, I.

AU - Tokuno, H.

AU - Tomida, T.

AU - Troitsky, S.

AU - Tsunesada, Y.

AU - Uchihori, Y.

AU - Udo, S.

AU - Urban, F.

AU - Vasiloff, G.

AU - Wong, T.

AU - Yamamoto, M.

AU - Yamane, R.

AU - Yamaoka, H.

AU - Yamazaki, K.

AU - Yang, J.

AU - Yashiro, K.

AU - Yoneda, Y.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Yoshii, H.

AU - Zundel, Z.

PY - 2018/7/16

Y1 - 2018/7/16

N2 - Bursts of gamma ray showers have been observed in coincidence with downward propagating negative leaders in lightning flashes by the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD). The TASD is a 700-km2 cosmic ray observatory located in southwestern Utah, USA. In data collected between 2014 and 2016, correlated observations showing the structure and temporal development of three shower-producing flashes were obtained with a 3-D lightning mapping array, and electric field change measurements were obtained for an additional seven flashes, in both cases colocated with the TASD. National Lightning Detection Network information was also used throughout. The showers arrived in a sequence of 2–5 short-duration (≤10 μs) bursts over time intervals of several hundred microseconds and originated at an altitude of ≃3–5 km above ground level during the first 1–2 ms of downward negative leader breakdown at the beginning of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. The shower footprints, associated waveforms and the effect of atmospheric propagation indicate that the showers consist primarily of downward-beamed gamma radiation. This has been supported by GEANT simulation studies, which indicate primary source fluxes of ≃1012–1014 photons for 16° half-angle beams. We conclude that the showers are terrestrial gamma ray flashes, similar to those observed by satellites, but that the ground-based observations are more representative of the temporal source activity and are also more sensitive than satellite observations, which detect only the most powerful terrestrial gamma ray flashes.

AB - Bursts of gamma ray showers have been observed in coincidence with downward propagating negative leaders in lightning flashes by the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD). The TASD is a 700-km2 cosmic ray observatory located in southwestern Utah, USA. In data collected between 2014 and 2016, correlated observations showing the structure and temporal development of three shower-producing flashes were obtained with a 3-D lightning mapping array, and electric field change measurements were obtained for an additional seven flashes, in both cases colocated with the TASD. National Lightning Detection Network information was also used throughout. The showers arrived in a sequence of 2–5 short-duration (≤10 μs) bursts over time intervals of several hundred microseconds and originated at an altitude of ≃3–5 km above ground level during the first 1–2 ms of downward negative leader breakdown at the beginning of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. The shower footprints, associated waveforms and the effect of atmospheric propagation indicate that the showers consist primarily of downward-beamed gamma radiation. This has been supported by GEANT simulation studies, which indicate primary source fluxes of ≃1012–1014 photons for 16° half-angle beams. We conclude that the showers are terrestrial gamma ray flashes, similar to those observed by satellites, but that the ground-based observations are more representative of the temporal source activity and are also more sensitive than satellite observations, which detect only the most powerful terrestrial gamma ray flashes.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050382187&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85050382187&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1029/2017JD027931

DO - 10.1029/2017JD027931

M3 - Article

VL - 123

SP - 6864

EP - 6879

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres

SN - 0148-0227

IS - 13

ER -