GeV observations of star-forming galaxies with the fermi large area telescope

M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron & 109 others P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, A. N. Cillis, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R. E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, Jun Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, P. Martin, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, S. Nishino, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, M. Ozaki, D. Parent, M. Persic, M. Pesce-Rollins, V. Petrosian, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T. A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, M. Roth, C. Sbarra, C. Sgrò, E. J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, Łukasz Stawarz, A. W. Strong, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. B. Thayer, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, J. Vandenbroucke, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, M. Wood, Z. Yang

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    201 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. We find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values ≲ 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = -4.3 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M yr-1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). We anticipate that 10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number164
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume755
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2012 Aug 20

    Fingerprint

    telescopes
    galaxies
    stars
    luminosity
    gamma rays
    cosmic ray
    starburst galaxies
    cosmic rays
    gamma ray telescopes
    scaling
    Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
    energy
    physics
    star formation rate
    massive stars
    radio
    continuums
    photons

    Keywords

    • cosmic rays
    • galaxies: starburst
    • gamma rays: diffuse background
    • gamma rays: galaxies

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Bastieri, D., ... Yang, Z. (2012). GeV observations of star-forming galaxies with the fermi large area telescope. Astrophysical Journal, 755(2), [164]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/755/2/164

    GeV observations of star-forming galaxies with the fermi large area telescope. / Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Cillis, A. N.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; De Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, Jun; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Martin, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ozaki, M.; Parent, D.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sbarra, C.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Łukasz; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 755, No. 2, 164, 20.08.2012.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Allafort, A, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Bastieri, D, Bechtol, K, Bellazzini, R, Berenji, B, Bloom, ED, Bonamente, E, Borgland, AW, Bouvier, A, Bregeon, J, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Buson, S, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Caraveo, PA, Casandjian, JM, Cecchi, C, Charles, E, Chekhtman, A, Cheung, CC, Chiang, J, Cillis, AN, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Conrad, J, Cutini, S, De Palma, F, Dermer, CD, Digel, SW, Do Couto E Silva, E, Drell, PS, Drlica-Wagner, A, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, SJ, Fortin, P, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Germani, S, Giglietto, N, Giordano, F, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Grenier, IA, Guiriec, S, Gustafsson, M, Hadasch, D, Hayashida, M, Hays, E, Hughes, RE, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Kamae, T, Katagiri, H, Kataoka, J, Knödlseder, J, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Madejski, GM, Martin, P, Mazziotta, MN, McEnery, JE, Michelson, PF, Mizuno, T, Monte, C, Monzani, ME, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Nishino, S, Norris, JP, Nuss, E, Ohno, M, Ohsugi, T, Okumura, A, Omodei, N, Orlando, E, Ozaki, M, Parent, D, Persic, M, Pesce-Rollins, M, Petrosian, V, Pierbattista, M, Piron, F, Pivato, G, Porter, TA, Rainò, S, Rando, R, Razzano, M, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Ritz, S, Roth, M, Sbarra, C, Sgrò, C, Siskind, EJ, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Stawarz, Ł, Strong, AW, Takahashi, H, Tanaka, T, Thayer, JB, Tibaldo, L, Tinivella, M, Torres, DF, Tosti, G, Troja, E, Uchiyama, Y, Vandenbroucke, J, Vianello, G, Vitale, V, Waite, AP, Wood, M & Yang, Z 2012, 'GeV observations of star-forming galaxies with the fermi large area telescope', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 755, no. 2, 164. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/755/2/164
    Ackermann M, Ajello M, Allafort A, Baldini L, Ballet J, Bastieri D et al. GeV observations of star-forming galaxies with the fermi large area telescope. Astrophysical Journal. 2012 Aug 20;755(2). 164. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/755/2/164
    Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Allafort, A. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Bastieri, D. ; Bechtol, K. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Berenji, B. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bonamente, E. ; Borgland, A. W. ; Bouvier, A. ; Bregeon, J. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cecchi, C. ; Charles, E. ; Chekhtman, A. ; Cheung, C. C. ; Chiang, J. ; Cillis, A. N. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Conrad, J. ; Cutini, S. ; De Palma, F. ; Dermer, C. D. ; Digel, S. W. ; Do Couto E Silva, E. ; Drell, P. S. ; Drlica-Wagner, A. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Fortin, P. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Germani, S. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giordano, F. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Guiriec, S. ; Gustafsson, M. ; Hadasch, D. ; Hayashida, M. ; Hays, E. ; Hughes, R. E. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Kamae, T. ; Katagiri, H. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kuss, M. ; Lande, J. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lott, B. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Madejski, G. M. ; Martin, P. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mizuno, T. ; Monte, C. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Nishino, S. ; Norris, J. P. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohno, M. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Okumura, A. ; Omodei, N. ; Orlando, E. ; Ozaki, M. ; Parent, D. ; Persic, M. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Petrosian, V. ; Pierbattista, M. ; Piron, F. ; Pivato, G. ; Porter, T. A. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Ritz, S. ; Roth, M. ; Sbarra, C. ; Sgrò, C. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Stawarz, Łukasz ; Strong, A. W. ; Takahashi, H. ; Tanaka, T. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Tinivella, M. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Troja, E. ; Uchiyama, Y. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Vianello, G. ; Vitale, V. ; Waite, A. P. ; Wood, M. ; Yang, Z. / GeV observations of star-forming galaxies with the fermi large area telescope. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2012 ; Vol. 755, No. 2.
    @article{f191addbcac84222b661f7d525e97780,
    title = "GeV observations of star-forming galaxies with the fermi large area telescope",
    abstract = "Recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. We find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values ≲ 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = -4.3 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M yr-1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (4{\%}-23{\%} of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). We anticipate that 10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.",
    keywords = "cosmic rays, galaxies: starburst, gamma rays: diffuse background, gamma rays: galaxies",
    author = "M. Ackermann and M. Ajello and A. Allafort and L. Baldini and J. Ballet and D. Bastieri and K. Bechtol and R. Bellazzini and B. Berenji and Bloom, {E. D.} and E. Bonamente and Borgland, {A. W.} and A. Bouvier and J. Bregeon and M. Brigida and P. Bruel and R. Buehler and S. Buson and Caliandro, {G. A.} and Cameron, {R. A.} and Caraveo, {P. A.} and Casandjian, {J. M.} and C. Cecchi and E. Charles and A. Chekhtman and Cheung, {C. C.} and J. Chiang and Cillis, {A. N.} and S. Ciprini and R. Claus and J. Cohen-Tanugi and J. Conrad and S. Cutini and {De Palma}, F. and Dermer, {C. D.} and Digel, {S. W.} and {Do Couto E Silva}, E. and Drell, {P. S.} and A. Drlica-Wagner and C. Favuzzi and Fegan, {S. J.} and P. Fortin and Y. Fukazawa and S. Funk and P. Fusco and F. Gargano and D. Gasparrini and S. Germani and N. Giglietto and F. Giordano and T. Glanzman and G. Godfrey and Grenier, {I. A.} and S. Guiriec and M. Gustafsson and D. Hadasch and M. Hayashida and E. Hays and Hughes, {R. E.} and G. J{\'o}hannesson and Johnson, {A. S.} and T. Kamae and H. Katagiri and Jun Kataoka and J. Kn{\"o}dlseder and M. Kuss and J. Lande and F. Longo and F. Loparco and B. Lott and Lovellette, {M. N.} and P. Lubrano and Madejski, {G. M.} and P. Martin and Mazziotta, {M. N.} and McEnery, {J. E.} and Michelson, {P. F.} and T. Mizuno and C. Monte and Monzani, {M. E.} and A. Morselli and Moskalenko, {I. V.} and S. Murgia and S. Nishino and Norris, {J. P.} and E. Nuss and M. Ohno and T. Ohsugi and A. Okumura and N. Omodei and E. Orlando and M. Ozaki and D. Parent and M. Persic and M. Pesce-Rollins and V. Petrosian and M. Pierbattista and F. Piron and G. Pivato and Porter, {T. A.} and S. Rain{\`o} and R. Rando and M. Razzano and A. Reimer and O. Reimer and S. Ritz and M. Roth and C. Sbarra and C. Sgr{\`o} and Siskind, {E. J.} and G. Spandre and P. Spinelli and Łukasz Stawarz and Strong, {A. W.} and H. Takahashi and T. Tanaka and Thayer, {J. B.} and L. Tibaldo and M. Tinivella and Torres, {D. F.} and G. Tosti and E. Troja and Y. Uchiyama and J. Vandenbroucke and G. Vianello and V. Vitale and Waite, {A. P.} and M. Wood and Z. Yang",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - GeV observations of star-forming galaxies with the fermi large area telescope

    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Ajello, M.

    AU - Allafort, A.

    AU - Baldini, L.

    AU - Ballet, J.

    AU - Bastieri, D.

    AU - Bechtol, K.

    AU - Bellazzini, R.

    AU - Berenji, B.

    AU - Bloom, E. D.

    AU - Bonamente, E.

    AU - Borgland, A. W.

    AU - Bouvier, A.

    AU - Bregeon, J.

    AU - Brigida, M.

    AU - Bruel, P.

    AU - Buehler, R.

    AU - Buson, S.

    AU - Caliandro, G. A.

    AU - Cameron, R. A.

    AU - Caraveo, P. A.

    AU - Casandjian, J. M.

    AU - Cecchi, C.

    AU - Charles, E.

    AU - Chekhtman, A.

    AU - Cheung, C. C.

    AU - Chiang, J.

    AU - Cillis, A. N.

    AU - Ciprini, S.

    AU - Claus, R.

    AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    AU - Conrad, J.

    AU - Cutini, S.

    AU - De Palma, F.

    AU - Dermer, C. D.

    AU - Digel, S. W.

    AU - Do Couto E Silva, E.

    AU - Drell, P. S.

    AU - Drlica-Wagner, A.

    AU - Favuzzi, C.

    AU - Fegan, S. J.

    AU - Fortin, P.

    AU - Fukazawa, Y.

    AU - Funk, S.

    AU - Fusco, P.

    AU - Gargano, F.

    AU - Gasparrini, D.

    AU - Germani, S.

    AU - Giglietto, N.

    AU - Giordano, F.

    AU - Glanzman, T.

    AU - Godfrey, G.

    AU - Grenier, I. A.

    AU - Guiriec, S.

    AU - Gustafsson, M.

    AU - Hadasch, D.

    AU - Hayashida, M.

    AU - Hays, E.

    AU - Hughes, R. E.

    AU - Jóhannesson, G.

    AU - Johnson, A. S.

    AU - Kamae, T.

    AU - Katagiri, H.

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Knödlseder, J.

    AU - Kuss, M.

    AU - Lande, J.

    AU - Longo, F.

    AU - Loparco, F.

    AU - Lott, B.

    AU - Lovellette, M. N.

    AU - Lubrano, P.

    AU - Madejski, G. M.

    AU - Martin, P.

    AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

    AU - McEnery, J. E.

    AU - Michelson, P. F.

    AU - Mizuno, T.

    AU - Monte, C.

    AU - Monzani, M. E.

    AU - Morselli, A.

    AU - Moskalenko, I. V.

    AU - Murgia, S.

    AU - Nishino, S.

    AU - Norris, J. P.

    AU - Nuss, E.

    AU - Ohno, M.

    AU - Ohsugi, T.

    AU - Okumura, A.

    AU - Omodei, N.

    AU - Orlando, E.

    AU - Ozaki, M.

    AU - Parent, D.

    AU - Persic, M.

    AU - Pesce-Rollins, M.

    AU - Petrosian, V.

    AU - Pierbattista, M.

    AU - Piron, F.

    AU - Pivato, G.

    AU - Porter, T. A.

    AU - Rainò, S.

    AU - Rando, R.

    AU - Razzano, M.

    AU - Reimer, A.

    AU - Reimer, O.

    AU - Ritz, S.

    AU - Roth, M.

    AU - Sbarra, C.

    AU - Sgrò, C.

    AU - Siskind, E. J.

    AU - Spandre, G.

    AU - Spinelli, P.

    AU - Stawarz, Łukasz

    AU - Strong, A. W.

    AU - Takahashi, H.

    AU - Tanaka, T.

    AU - Thayer, J. B.

    AU - Tibaldo, L.

    AU - Tinivella, M.

    AU - Torres, D. F.

    AU - Tosti, G.

    AU - Troja, E.

    AU - Uchiyama, Y.

    AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

    AU - Vianello, G.

    AU - Vitale, V.

    AU - Waite, A. P.

    AU - Wood, M.

    AU - Yang, Z.

    PY - 2012/8/20

    Y1 - 2012/8/20

    N2 - Recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. We find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values ≲ 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = -4.3 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M yr-1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). We anticipate that 10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.

    AB - Recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. We find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values ≲ 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = -4.3 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M yr-1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). We anticipate that 10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.

    KW - cosmic rays

    KW - galaxies: starburst

    KW - gamma rays: diffuse background

    KW - gamma rays: galaxies

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    JO - Astrophysical Journal

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    SN - 0004-637X

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