Gluconic and Itaconic Acids

Kotaro Kirimura, Y. Honda, T. Hattori

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    d-Gluconic acid is a naturally occurring polyhydroxycarboxylic acid commonly found in human beings and other organisms. d-Gluconic acid, containing the forms of its δ-lactone and gluconates, is one of the bulk chemicals and is used in many fields such as the food, pharmaceutical, and construction industries. Today, industrial production of d-gluconic acid is mainly performed by Aspergillus niger with glucose as a major carbon source, and the yield is higher than 95%. The annual worldwide production level was approximately 90. 000 tons in 2009. On the other hand, itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarbonic organic acid and mainly used in the plastic and paint industries. Today, industrial production of itaconic acid is mainly performed by Aspergillus terreus using glucose or pretreated molasses as a major carbon source. The annual worldwide production level was approximately 15. 000 tons in 2009. In this article, we provide a current review of application of gluconic and itaconic acids in the industrial fields and their general production processes.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationIndustrial Biotechnology and Commodity Products
    PublisherElsevier Inc.
    Number of pages5
    ISBN (Electronic)9780080885049
    ISBN (Print)9780444533524
    Publication statusPublished - 2011 Sep 9


    • Aspergillus niger
    • Aspergillus terreus
    • Cis-Aconitic acid
    • Citric acid
    • Gluconic acid
    • Glucono-δ-lactone
    • Glucose oxidase
    • Glycolysis
    • Itaconic acid
    • Tricarboxylic acid cycle

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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  • Cite this

    Kirimura, K., Honda, Y., & Hattori, T. (2011). Gluconic and Itaconic Acids. In Industrial Biotechnology and Commodity Products (Vol. 3, pp. 143-147). Elsevier Inc..