Gluconic and itaconic acids

Kohtaro Kirimura, Isato Yoshioka

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


d-Gluconic acid is a naturally occurring polyhydroxycarboxylic acid commonly found in human beings and other organisms. d-gluconic acid, containing the forms of its d -lactone and gluconates, is one of the bulk chemicals and used in many fields such as the food, pharmaceutical, and construction industries. Today, industrial production of d-gluconic acid is mainly performed by Aspergillus niger with glucose as a major carbon source, and the yield is more than 95%. The annual worldwide production level is approximately 90,000 ton in 2016. On the other hand, itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarbonic organic acid and mainly used in the plastic and paint industries. Today, industrial production of itaconic acid is mainly performed by Aspergillus terreus using glucose or pretreated molasses as a major carbon source. The annual worldwide production level is approximately 16,000 ton in 2016. In this item, we provide a current article of application of gluconic and itaconic acids in the industrial fields and their general production processes.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComprehensive Biotechnology
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9780444640475
ISBN (Print)9780444640468
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1


  • Aconitate decarboxylase
  • Aconitate isomerase
  • Aconitic acid
  • Aspergillus niger
  • Aspergillus terreus
  • Citric acid
  • Gluconic acid
  • Glucono-d -lactone
  • Glucose dehydrogenase
  • Glucose oxidase
  • Glycolysis
  • Itaconic acid
  • Tricarboxylic acid cycle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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  • Cite this

    Kirimura, K., & Yoshioka, I. (2019). Gluconic and itaconic acids. In Comprehensive Biotechnology (pp. 166-171). Elsevier.