High-stiffness and strength porous maraging steel via topology optimization and selective laser melting

Akihiro Takezawa*, Yuichiro Koizumi, Makoto Kobashi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Recent additive manufacturing technologies can be used to fabricate porous metals with precise internal pore structures and effective performance. We use topology optimization to derive an optimal pore structure shape with high stiffness that is verified experimentally. The design maximizes the effective bulk modulus and isotropic stiffness, and the performance is compared with Hashin–Shtrikman (HS) bounds. The optimized structure is fabricated via selective laser melting of maraging steel, which is a high-strength, iron-nickel steel that cannot easily be made porous with conventional methods. The optimal porous structure achieved 85% of the performance of the HS upper bound in numerical simulations, and at least 90% of them were realized in compressive testing. Finally, the performance is discussed relative to that of other metals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)194-202
Number of pages9
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Dec 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Hashin–Shtrikman bound
  • Porous metal
  • Selective laser melting
  • Topology optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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