Hip rotation angle is associated with frontal plane knee joint mechanics during running

Masanori Sakaguchi, Norifumi Shimizu, Toshimasa Yanai, Darren J. Stefanyshyn, Yasuo Kawakami*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Inability to control lower extremity segments in the frontal and transverse planes resulting in large knee abduction angle and increased internal knee abduction impulse has been associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP). However, the influence of hip rotation angles on frontal plane knee joint kinematics and kinetics remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore how hip rotation angles are related to frontal plane knee joint kinematics and kinetics during running. Seventy runners participated in this study. Three-dimensional marker positions and ground reaction forces were recorded with an 8-camera motion analysis system and a force plate while subjects ran along a 25-m runway at a speed of 4. m/s. Knee abduction, hip rotation and toe-out angles, frontal plane lever arm at the knee, internal knee abduction moment and impulse, ground reaction forces and the medio-lateral distance from the ankle joint center to the center of pressure (AJC-CoP) were quantified. The findings of this study indicate that greater hip external rotation angles were associated with greater toe-out angles, longer AJC-CoP distances, smaller internal knee abduction impulses with shorter frontal plane lever arms and greater knee abduction angles. Thus, there appears to exist a conflict between kinematic and kinetic risk factors of PFP, and hip external rotation angle may be a key factor to control frontal plane knee joint kinematics and kinetics. These results may help provide an appropriate manipulation and/or intervention on running style to reduce the risk of PFP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-561
Number of pages5
JournalGait and Posture
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Knee abduction
  • Patellofemoral pain
  • Running injury
  • Toe-out

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation


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