A combination of Ni(cod)2 and PCyp3 is found to be an effective catalyst for chemoselective activation of the C-H bond of fluoroarenes over C-F bonds followed by insertion of alkynes to allow direct alkenylation of the electron-deficient arenes. The characteristics of the reactions are: a C-H bond ortho to a fluorine substituent is selectively activated; the reactivity of fluorobenzenes is roughly proportional to the number of fluorine atoms. The reaction conditions tolerate a broad range of both alkynes and fluoroarenes containing both electron-withdrawing and -donating groups, thus allowing efficient synthesis of a variety of substituted ethenes containing a fluoroaryl motif in high regio- and stereoselective manners. Mechanistic studies including both labeling experiments and stoichiometric reactions reveal that oxidative addition of C-H bonds in fluoroarenes to nickel(0) is kinetically highly facile whereas that of C-F bonds is thermodynamically favoured.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Inorganic Chemistry