Hydrolysis and condensation processes of titanium iso-propoxide modified with catechol: An NMR study

Kentaro Egawa, Kentaro Suzaki, Yoshiyuki Sugahara

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    The hydrolysis and condensation processes of titanium iso-propoxide modified with catechol (C6H4(OH)2; H 2cat) have been investigated by 1H, 13C and 17O nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The hydrolysis reactions of the modified titanium isoo-propoxide in the system with Ti:tetrahydrofuran (THF):H2O = 1:20:x (x =1,2 and 5 in a molar ratio) are essentially completed in the initial stage (<1 h), and the condensation reactions also proceed significantly during this stage. Upon hydrolysis with H2O/Ti = 1, the iso-propoxy groups are selectively hydrolyzed and the catecholate groups remain bound to titanium. With H2O/Ti = 2 and 5, both the iso-propoxy and catecholate groups are hydrolyzed, and the hydrolysis of the iso-propoxy groups is relatively preferential. Approximately half the catecholate groups are stably bound to titanium, even after hydrolysis with H2O/Ti = 5.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)83-88
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2004 May



    • Catechol, hydrolysis
    • Chemical modification
    • Condensation
    • Nuclear magnetic resonance
    • Sol-gel process
    • Titanium iso-propoxide

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ceramics and Composites

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