Probing undiscovered neuropeptides that play important roles in the regulation of pituitary function in vertebrates is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. Recently, we identified a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide with a C-terminal LPLRF-amide sequence in the quail brain. This avian neuropeptide was shown to be located in the hypothalamo-hypophysial system and to decrease gonadotropin release from cultured anterior pituitary. We, therefore, designated this novel neuropeptide as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). We further identified novel hypothalamic neuropeptides closely related to GnIH in the brains of other vertebrates, such as mammals, amphibians, and fish. The identified neuropeptides possessed a LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at their C-termini. These LPXRF-amide peptides also were localized in the hypothalamus and other brainstem areas and regulated pituitary hormone release. Subsequently, cDNAs that encode LPXRF-amide peptides were characterized in vertebrate brains. In this review, we summarize the identification, localization, and hypophysiotropic activity of these newly identified hypothalamic LPXRF-amide peptides in vertebrates.
- Frog growth hormone-releasing peptide (fGRP)
- Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)
- Hypophysiotropic activity
- LPXRF-amide peptides
- RF-amide peptides
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience