Hypothalamic LPXRF-amide peptides in vertebrates: Identification, localization and hypophysiotropic activity

Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi Ukena

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

90 Citations (Scopus)


Probing undiscovered neuropeptides that play important roles in the regulation of pituitary function in vertebrates is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. Recently, we identified a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide with a C-terminal LPLRF-amide sequence in the quail brain. This avian neuropeptide was shown to be located in the hypothalamo-hypophysial system and to decrease gonadotropin release from cultured anterior pituitary. We, therefore, designated this novel neuropeptide as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). We further identified novel hypothalamic neuropeptides closely related to GnIH in the brains of other vertebrates, such as mammals, amphibians, and fish. The identified neuropeptides possessed a LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at their C-termini. These LPXRF-amide peptides also were localized in the hypothalamus and other brainstem areas and regulated pituitary hormone release. Subsequently, cDNAs that encode LPXRF-amide peptides were characterized in vertebrate brains. In this review, we summarize the identification, localization, and hypophysiotropic activity of these newly identified hypothalamic LPXRF-amide peptides in vertebrates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1121-1129
Number of pages9
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2006 May
Externally publishedYes


  • Frog growth hormone-releasing peptide (fGRP)
  • Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)
  • Hypophysiotropic activity
  • Hypothalamus
  • LPXRF-amide peptides
  • Pituitary
  • RF-amide peptides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Physiology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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