This paper presents a novel image edge detection method based on a simplified pulse coupled neural network with anisotropic interconnections (PCNNAI) by applying an anisotropic linking mechanism. PCNNAI utilizes the anisotropic linking mechanism to create an adaptive synaptic weight matrix to achieve the anisotropic interconnection model among neurons. Therefore, the neurons corresponding to edge and non-edge pixels will receive different feedback signal from neighborhood. Due to the PCNN structure the edges will be detected by different internal activity of edge neurons and non-edge neurons. Comparing with conventional PCNN edge detection methods, PCNNAI simplifies the system structure and the outputs are controllable, meanwhile PCNNAI also achieves more accurate results than the classical image edge detectors. Experimental results show that PCNNAI is effective at image edge detection.