Purpose: Although the imaging of luminescence emitted in water during irradiation of protons and carbon ions is a useful method for range and dose estimations, the intensity of the images is relatively low due to the low photon production of the luminescence phenomenon. Therefore, a relatively long time is required for the imaging. Since a fluorescent dye, fluorescein, may increase the intensity of the optical signal, we measured the luminescence images of water with different concentrations of fluorescein during irradiation of protons and carbon ions and compared the results with those by measurements with water. Methods: A cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used for imaging a water phantom with different concentrations of fluorescein from 0.0063 to 0.025 mg/cm3, in addition to a water phantom without fluorescein during irradiation of 150-MeV protons and 241.5-MeV/n carbon ions. Results: For both protons and carbon ions, the intensity of the luminescence images increased as the concentration of fluorescein increased. With a fluorescein concentration of 0.025 mg/cm3, the intensities increased to more than 10 times those of water for both protons and carbon ions. Although the shape of the depth profiles of luminescence images of water with fluorescein appeared similar to that of water for protons, those for carbon ions were different from those of water due to the increase in the Cherenkov light component at shallow depths by the decrease in the angular dependencies of the Cherenkov light. Conclusion: We confirmed the increase in intensity of the luminescence of water by adding fluorescein for particle ions. With a small amount of Cherenkov light contamination in the images, such as protons, the relative distributions of the luminescence images with fluorescein were similar to that of water and will be used for range or dose determination in a short time.
- carbon ion
- Cherenkov light
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging